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This article is written by Bhavya Awasthi of 2nd Year of New Law College Bharati Vidyapeeth, an intern under Legal Vidhiya


Plea bargaining is a course of discussion between the denounced and the indictment wherein the blamed consents to confess to a lesser allegation or to a decreased sentence in return for a more merciful discipline or another advantage. In India, it is administered by the CrPC, 1973, and the Plea-Bargaining Rules, 2017. For offenses that carry a maximum sentence of seven years in prison or less, the Indian legal system permits plea bargaining. The charged individual must willfully decide on plea bargaining, and the court should be fulfilled that the request has been made intentionally and with full information on its ramifications.

It is critical to take note of that the court has the discretion to acknowledge or dismiss the plea-bargaining request assuming it considers it to be treacherous, preposterous, or in opposition to the interest of equity. Also, in the event that the blamed breaks the terms for the plea-bargaining understanding, the court might save the arrangement and continue with the preliminary.[1]


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Plea Bargaining, in regulation, the act of arranging an understanding between the indictment and the safeguard by which the respondent confesses to a lesser offense or (on account of various offenses) to at least one of the offenses charged in return for more permissive condemning, proposals, a particular sentence, or an excusal of different charges. Allies of supplication dealing guarantee that it speeds court procedures and ensures a conviction, though rivals accept that it keeps a fair consequence from being given. In the vast majority of criminal cases, plea bargaining is involved in some way.[2]

Plea bargaining is not generally simple to perceive. Exchanges that outcome in conventional arrangements are named “explicit plea bargains”. In any case, some request deals are designated “implicit plea bargains” since they include no assurance of mercy. Of the two, explicit deals are more important.

Examples of Plea bargaining-

Excusal of charges:

In exchange for the dismissal of some of the charges against them, a defendant may agree to plead guilty to a lesser charge or receive a sentence that is less severe. A defendant accused of multiple counts of robbery, for instance, may plead guilty to just one charge and have the others dropped in exchange for a lighter sentence.

Suggestion for a particular sentence:

In return for a guilty plea, the prosecution may recommend a specific sentence. For instance, a litigant accused of misappropriation might concede and get a sentence of probation in return for full compensation.

Charges reduced:

In exchange for a lighter sentence, a defendant may agree to plead guilty to a lesser charge than the original one. A person accused of murder, for instance, might agree to a lesser sentence by admitting to manslaughter instead of murder.

Exceptions :

  1. Offenses that are culpable with death, detainment of life, a term surpassing 7 years of detainment,
  2. Offenses against ladies (like stalking or assault),
  3. Offenses against children younger than 14
  4. Offenses that influence the financial state of a nation (like tax evasion)

Aside from this, where the court finds that an individual has been sentenced under a similar offense beforehand or that he (denounced) has automatically recorded the application under this idea, the court can continue further as per the law from the stage where such an application has been documented.


The most important aspect of plea bargaining to keep in mind is that it has the potential to benefit both the accused and the state. The blamed is allowed to feel free to concede his culpability all alone, provoking the court to send off him being investigated or bring down the discipline. Accordingly, the blamed’s and the court’s time and assets are saved.

To fit the plea bargaining, the denounced should not fall under the accompanying cases:-

  1. The most extreme sentence of the offense is over seven years.
  2. The wrongdoing has been perpetrated in opposition to a lady or a youngster under 14 years.
  3. The accused was previously found guilty of the same crime.
  4. An offense that influences what is going on of the country.[3]

Plea Bargaining in India

In India, plea bargaining was made legal on January 11, 2006, when the Criminal Procedure Code was amended. The fact that guilty parties who accept responsibility for their actions receive consideration in further investigation and litigation of their case is one reason that plea bargains are popular. In other instances, the defendant may be liable for a single crime but possess information that would be useful in prosecuting a more extensive or significant offense. In such instances, in exchange for the defendant’s cooperation (such as testimony) in prosecuting the broader matter, prosecutors may agree to reduced charges or sentencing.

In then again different cases, examiners might make certain of the respondent’s responsibility with regards to this issue. Nonetheless, the evidence may not be sufficient to persuade a jury of the litigant’s responsibility. It is of gain to each the examiner and the respondent to sort out a supplication deal – this dodges the risk that the litigant could be viewed as not blameworthy (which is unfriendly to the investigator) or be viewed as a legitimate fault for serious costs (which is harming to the respondent). Plea bargaining allows examiners to settle cases without driving a casualty to experience extended court procedures or affirm in a jury preliminary.[4]

Indian Provision

Concede (plead guilty) : The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) has always allowed an accused person to plead “guilty” instead of claiming the right to a full trial. However, this is not the same as plea bargaining.

Plea Bargaining: plea bargaining was presented in 2006 as a component of a bunch of corrections to the CrPC as Part XXI-A, containing Segments 265A to 265L.

Cases for which the plea bargaining is permitted are restricted.

Just somebody who has been charged for an offense that doesn’t draw in capital punishment, life sentence or a jail term over seven years can utilize the plan under Part XXI-A. It is likewise pertinent to private protests of which a crook court has taken cognizance.

Different classifications of cases that can’t be discarded through plea bargaining are those that include offenses influencing the “financial circumstances” of the nation, or committed against a lady or a children under the age of 14.[5]

Method in India

Only the accused person can initiate the plea-bargaining process. This arrangement is not the same as the one in different nations like the USA where the examiner assumes a vital part in bargaining with the suspected wrongdoer.

The accused should apply to the court for conjuring the advantage of dealing.

From that point, the court might allow the prosecutor, the investigating official and the victim (if any) to hold a gathering for a “good demeanor of the case”.

When shared fulfillment is reached, the court formalizes the game plan via a report endorsed by every one of the gatherings and the managing official.

The accused might be condemned to a jail term that is a portion of the base time frame fixed for the offense. Assuming there is no base term endorsed, the sentence ought to approach one-fourth of the most extreme sentence specified in regulation.

The result may likewise include installment of remuneration and different costs to the casualty by the charged.

Guilty Plea vs. No Contest Plea

In a plea deal, a defendant usually has to admit that they broke the law and plead guilty. At times, however, a litigant will rather argue no challenge or enter a nolo contendere supplication. There are significant contrasts between a no-challenge supplication and a blameworthy request. A defendant who enters a plea of no contest not only indicates that they do not contest the allegations against them, but they also do not admit guilt.

If a defendant is afraid that the evidence will result in a conviction and doesn’t want to risk harsher penalties, they may agree to a no-contest plea. However, they may not want to admit that they broke the law. The no challenge play can’t be utilized in resulting criminal procedures as an affirmation of responsibility.

Implementation and Obstacles

Despite its incorporation into Indian law, the process of executing plea bargaining has repeatedly encountered obstacles. Factors like social impacts, financial conditions, and an absence of information among the blamed people play all had an influence in ruining its acknowledgment. The prosecutors’ and judges’ discretion and the willingness of both parties to negotiate are critical to the success of plea bargaining.

Present-day Circumstance

At present, request dealing stays an essential piece of India’s law enforcement framework, principally used for accelerating preliminaries and reducing the court’s caseload in cases which are connected with minor offenses. It has had a variety of effects on case resolution, resulting in some cases being resolved quickly and effectively using this mechanism.[6]

Should a Plea Bargain Be Accepted?

In the event that you have been accused of a wrongdoing, you might wish to arrange a request deal in the event that you accept the proof against you is solid and on the off chance that you are offered an arrangement that permits you to decrease the punishments that you could confront.

In the event that you accept that you can acquaint sensible uncertainty likewise with your culpability, however, you probably shouldn’t go into a supplication understanding as you will lose the opportunity to protect yourself and possibly get vindicated.

Options in Contrast to a Plea Bargaining

Options in contrast to a plea bargaining incorporate going to preliminary to attempt to get a not-liable decision, requesting that the court excuse the case on the off chance that there is deficient proof for an examiner to push ahead, or going into pre-preliminary redirection programs that could permit you to keep away from a lawbreaker record.

An accomplished criminal protection legal counselor can assist you with deciding whether a request deal is ideal for you or on the other hand in the event that these options could assist you with come by an improved result.[7]

Landmark Judgements by Supreme Court

Brady v. United States

In 1970s, a milestone was achieved by this landmark case in the Supreme Court of US upheld the constitutionality of plea bargaining, when the twentieth century, plea bargaining went through the course of formalization. Spearheading lawful researchers recognized its imperativeness to the law enforcement framework, prompting its more extensive reception by the courts.

Murlidhar Meghraj Loya v. State of Maharashtra (1976)

The Supreme Court of India first acknowledged the concept of plea bargaining in this case. The court saw that there was no arrangement for supplication bartering in the Code of Criminal System, yet it very well may be utilized in fitting cases to speedily discard criminal cases.

State of Uttar Pradesh v. Chandrika (2005)

Soon after the Code of Criminal Procedure’s introduction of the plea-bargaining provision, this case was decided. The court held that the reason for supplication dealing was to speed up the removal of cases and diminish the weight on the courts, and it ought not be utilized as a device to let the liable slip through the cracks.

Union of India v. Thamisharasi (2014)

In this case, the Supreme Court of India made it clear that the court cannot impose a sentence that is less severe than the legal minimum, even if it is part of a plea deal.[8]


Plea bargaining has been laid out as a remedy to the issue of packed prisons, overburdened courts and unusual postponements. It is impossible to replicate plea bargaining in the United States because of its nature and scale in India.

Subsequently, there are no grounds to accept that the training will accomplish similar scale and proportion of achievement as in the US. Further, the plan coordinated by the criminal regulation (Revision) Act, 2005, is terribly deficient on the grounds that numerous components critical to such a framework in India have not been thought of.[9]


  1. https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-10747-concept-of-plea-bargaining-under-indian-legal-system.html#:~:text=Meaning%20Of%20Plea%20Bargaining,the%20prosecutor%20or%20the%20court.
  2. https://www.britannica.com/topic/plea-bargaining
  3. https://blog.ipleaders.in/plea-bargaining-practice-india/#Exceptions_to_plea_bargaining
  4. https://www.manupatra.com/roundup/326/Articles/Plea%20bargaining.pdf
  5. https://www.drishtiias.com/daily-news-analysis/plea-bargaining
  6. https://www.bbau.ac.in/dept/HR/TM/LL.M.%20203%20Unit%204.Plea%20Bargaining.RM.pdf
  7. https://www.forbes.com/advisor/legal/criminal-defense/plea-bargain/
  8. https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-10747-concept-of-plea-bargaining-under-indian-legal-system.html#:~:text=Meaning%20Of%20Plea%20Bargaining,the%20prosecutor%20or%20the%20court.
  9. https://unacademy.com/content/upsc/study-material/law/plea-bargaining/

[1] https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-10747-concept-of-plea-bargaining-under-indian-legal-system.html#:~:text=Meaning%20Of%20Plea%20Bargaining,the%20prosecutor%20or%20the%20court.

[2] https://www.britannica.com/topic/plea-bargaining

[3] https://blog.ipleaders.in/plea-bargaining-practice-india/#Exceptions_to_plea_bargaining

[4] https://www.manupatra.com/roundup/326/Articles/Plea%20bargaining.pdf

[5] https://www.drishtiias.com/daily-news-analysis/plea-bargaining

[6] https://www.bbau.ac.in/dept/HR/TM/LL.M.%20203%20Unit%204.Plea%20Bargaining.RM.pdf

[7] https://www.forbes.com/advisor/legal/criminal-defense/plea-bargain/

[8] https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-10747-concept-of-plea-bargaining-under-indian-legal-system.html#:~:text=Meaning%20Of%20Plea%20Bargaining,the%20prosecutor%20or%20the%20court.

[9] https://unacademy.com/content/upsc/study-material/law/plea-bargaining/

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