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This article is written by Yamini Devi N of 2nd year student of School of Excellence in Law, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai, an intern under Legal Vidhiya


This article titled as The Role of Civic Engagement in Civil Rights Reform, which discusses comparative analysis of past and present Civic engagement in Civil Rights Movement in India and Abroad. Further, this article comprises a multi-disciplinary approach where we see an In- dept analysis of legislative constructions, social media platforms, social psychology, well-being considerations, and economic justice, this article explores racial equity, gender parity, environmental justice, indigenous sovereignty, disability rights, and online activism. Pointing out the challenges and proposing remedies, the article emphasizes grassroots movements, strategic leadership, and transformative civic engagement. From the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to current scenario this article straighten out on the progression and persistence of Civic engagement in the quest of justice and equality.


Civic Engagement, Civil Rights Movement, Civil Rights Act, Role, Justice, Equality


This article emphasis a comparative analysis of the historical and contemporary nuances of Civic engagement within the civil rights movements, both in the India  and on the international arena. Through the kaleidoscope of a multidisciplinary approach, we strive  to disentangle the intricate tapestry of societal metamorphosis and activist passion. In this article, we will go through intellectual exploration as we navigate the history and present of contemporary movement, disentangling the multifaceted dimensions of Civic engagement in the quest  of civil rights. By reading this article we could come up with strategic solutions, examining grassroots movements, strategic leadership, and transformative civic engagement. Amidst of all the  challenges like racism, physical and emotional violence against activists, legal barriers, and resistance from power structures, Civic engagement emerges as a resilient force. The article contributes to analysing the systematic role of  Civic engagement plays in continuous efforts for justice, equality, and societal transformation. Join us in the potential journey  disentangle  the intricacies of Civic engagement in the quest of civil rights.


This significant motive of this article is to conduct comprehensive analysis of Civic engagement in civil rights reform, approaching historical and contemporary dimensions. Objectives include examining closely legislative, multimedia, psychological, and economic aspects, mentioning challenges like  racism and physical and mental violence against activists with coming up  solutions .The article emphasise the importance of collective action, legal  advocacy, and social introspection for a more just and equitable world, tempts the  Reader’s  participation in the current journey toward civil rights reform.

  • Civic Engagement in Civil Rights Reform in various discipline
  • Identifying the challenges faced by Civic Engagement and finding solutions to overcome the challenges.
  • Comprehensive analysis of past and present Civic Engagement in Civil Rights Movement.



The legal arrangement of the civil rights movement in the United States played a vital  role in cope up with structural discrimination and endorsing equal rights as follows :

1. Civil Rights Act of 1964[1]:  

Civil Rights Act enacted on July 2, 1964, this act is a play a vital role in  U.S. law encountering discrimination based on race, colour, religion, sex, and national origin. It challenges a divergent voter registration, school isolation, and workplace bias. This enactment is a major achievement in American history ,but at the early stage the enforcement is in slow pace later it strengthened. At first Civil Rights Act was proposed by President Kennedy in 1963, the bill faced Senate filibuster until President Johnson endorsed its success. After the approval of House and Senate, it became law, after signed by President Johnson on July 2, 1964.

2. Voting Rights Act of 1965[2]:

The Voting Rights Act passed the US Senate on May 26, 1965 by a vote of 77-19. Then, after more than a month of deliberation, the US House of Representatives approved the bill by a decisive margin of 333 on July 9. 85. President Johnson signed the act on August 6, 1965, with civil rights leaders including Martin Luther King Jr. in attendance. This historic law made literacy tests obsolete, with federal oversight of voter registration mandatory in less than half of precincts. The non-white population registered and delegated to the US Attorney General the power to scrutinize the use of poll taxes in state and local elections. The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, already outlawed poll taxes in federal elections, and the U.S. The Supreme Court extended the ban till state elections in 1966.

3. Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act): [3]

The Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.) bars housing discrimination by entities like landlords, real estate firms, municipalities, banks, and insurers, rooted in race, color, religion, sex, national origin, familial status, or disability. It grants the Department of Justice authority to address discrimination trends, pursue criminal cases for forceful interference, and handle individual grievances. The Act addresses issues like race and religious bias, sexual harassment, and discrimination tied to national origin. It shields families with children from unjust housing treatment, allowing certain exemptions for Housing for Older Persons. Furthermore, it outlaws disability discrimination, ensuring multi-family dwellings have accessibility features and curbing zoning bias against individuals with disabilities. Transgressors may face legal consequences, with the Department of Justice seeking remedies like retrofitting, training, and financial restitution. The Act emphasis to champion equitable housing practices and provide equal opportunities for all.

4. 24th Amendment (1964):

The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, crucially barred federal and state governments from imposing poll taxes, a significant step to eliminate economic barriers to voting. Proposed in 1962 and prompted by discriminatory practices in the South restricting African American political participation, this amendment aimed to enhance democratic access. The Supreme Court’s 1966 decision in the Harper v. Virginia Board of Electors case extended this prohibition to state elections, invoking the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause. This marked a pivotal moment during the civil rights era, ensuring broader voting rights and dismantling discriminatory practices.

Section 1—The right of citizens of the United states  to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, nor shall it be denied or abridged by the United States or any State for failure to pay the poll tax or other taxes for senators or representatives in Congress.

Section 2—The Congress  shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation[4].

5. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Title IX, a major aspect of the 1972 Education Amendments, US It stands as a cornerstone of federal civil rights legislation, carefully crafted to combat sex-based discrimination in educational programs dependent on federal funding. On June 23, 1972, Public Law No. Enacted under 92-318, the architectural genius behind Title IX is attributed to Senator Birch Bayh. This law artistically fills the void left by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which, while addressing employment discrimination, remained silent on educational inequality. In a complex legislative ballet, Representative Edith Green took center stage, orchestrating the introduction of this change. Law in the House. These efforts culminated on June 8, 1972, when Title IX received full congressional approval. The historical context is noteworthy: only 42 percent of college students were women at the time of Title IX’s inception, emphasizing the need to correct the gender imbalance that pervades academic fields.

6. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990[5]:

The following component describes  discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications.


Social Media:

In the complex dance of civil rights, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram emerged as important catalysts—facilitating rapid communication and widespread information dissemination. The platform empowers advocates, promotes efficient coordination, narrative sharing and raises awareness. The immediacy of social media increases cohesion within civil rights initiatives, quickly aligning and amplifying resonant stories. Through masterful use of hashtags and engaging content, these platforms translate not only online discourse but also digital momentum into tangible, real-world actions. In essence, social media contribute democratically to the broader social pursuit of equality and justice in the evolving landscape of civil rights.

Documentaries and Cinematic Artistry:

In masterpieces like “13th,” “Selma,” and “I’m Not Your Negro,” the cinematic lens delicately captures the complexities of both historical and contemporary chapters within the broad canvas of the civil rights movement. These productions go beyond traditional storytelling, evolving into poignant narratives that not only illuminate but also evoke deep understanding and empathy. Their far-reaching impact extends to diverse audiences, making them a powerful tool in the broader civil rights movement. These cinematic creations, imbued with both artistry and historical gravity, act as engaging educational catalysts, inspire enlightened action and catalyze social metamorphosis.


In the sonic landscape, podcasts stand out as dynamic forums promoting in-depth discussions on civil rights issues. These episodic narratives not only showcase the perspectives of experts, activists, and affected communities but also form integral components of the developing civil rights movement. With a nuanced exploration of historical and contemporary aspects, podcasts serve as a vehicle for broader conversation and educational endeavors. By amplifying diverse voices, they play a key role in cultivating a nuanced understanding and encouraging sustainability.

Online News Outlets:

In the digital realm, online news outlets serve as dynamic conduits that rapidly disseminate information and ensure global awareness of civil rights issues. In addition to the immediacy of news, these platforms create space for diverse voices and perspectives, making them an integral part of the ongoing civil rights movement. By providing real-time updates and amplifying diverse narratives, online news channels actively contribute to the broader discourse, shape collective understanding, and foster global engagement in the complex landscape of the civil rights movement.

Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR):

Immersive technologies, especially virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), are formidable tools in elucidating the challenges facing marginalized communities in the vast civil rights tapestry. movement. In particular, VR documentaries go beyond conventional storytelling by enveloping users in experiential stories and cultivating a deep sense of empathy. By virtually putting individuals in the shoes of those facing discrimination, these technologies not only reveal historical and contemporary struggles, but also actively immerse users in the ongoing story of the civil rights movement, making a visceral connection to the challenges and triumphs along the way. justice and equality

Online Advocacy and Petitions:

In the digital realm, platforms like Change.org are emerging as dynamic catalysts that empower individuals to create and endorse petitions that echo the ongoing tapestry of the civil rights movement. These virtual campaigns are turning into powerful tools, amplifying diverse voices and igniting broad support for specific civil rights cases. By providing a virtual agora for collective advocacy, they actively contribute to the broader discourse, fostering engagement and solidarity in the complex and evolving landscape of the civil rights movement.


Collective Identity Paradigm :

The Collective Identity Paradigm intricately explores the cognitive mechanisms through which individuals categorize themselves and others into social groups, shaped by shared characteristics. Within the realm of the civil rights movement, Unraveling the complexities of collective identities becomes imperative for comprehending and addressing pervasive issues of prejudice, discrimination, and bias. This theoretical framework serves as a sophisticated lens, offering nuanced insights into the intricate dynamics of group affiliations, identity formation, and the navigation of societal structures within the ongoing saga of civil rights advocacy.

Subconscious Prejudice:

Within the realm of social psychology, Subconscious Prejudice surfaces as a focal point, acknowledging the existence of unconscious attitudes or stereotypes that clandestinely influence judgments and behaviors. In the context of the civil rights movement, the recognition and conscientious addressing of these covert biases become imperative in the pursuit of formulating fair and just civil rights policies. This psychological concept sheds light on the subtle yet impactful forces that can shape perceptions and actions within the intricate landscape of civil rights advocacy.

Interconnection Paradigm:

The Interconnection Paradigm theory posits that intensified interactions between diverse groups can mitigate prejudice and cultivate profound understanding. In the context of the civil rights movement, orchestrating affirmative connections between individuals from varied backgrounds becomes a transformative force. These interactions serve as potent catalysts, systematically challenging stereotypes and fostering empathic bonds, thereby contributing to the broader goals of the civil rights movement by dismantling barriers and nurturing a more inclusive and harmonious societal fabric

Social Influence:

Thoroughly exploring the intricacies of social norms, conformity, and persuasion is indispensable for grasping how behaviors are influenced and, correspondingly, how societal attitudes toward civil rights can be meticulously crafted and revolutionized. In the milieu of the civil rights movement, a nuanced understanding of the mechanisms of social influence becomes pivotal in orchestrating profound shifts in public perception and fostering collective engagement towards the relentless pursuit of justice and equality.

Collective Affiliation Dynamics:

Delving into the annals of social psychology, the scrutiny of collective affiliation dynamics reveals the innate human tendency to favor those within their own social group (in-group) over those outside it (out-group). This intricate exploration takes on profound significance within the context of the civil rights movement, offering nuanced insights crucial for combating discrimination and fervently promoting inclusivity. The awareness of these dynamics becomes an indispensable instrument in the ongoing symphony of the civil rights movement, urging collective acknowledgment and the systematic dismantling of divisive barriers hindering the pursuit of justice and equality.


The physical and mental well-being of individuals engaged in the civil rights movement, encompassing activists and the communities impacted, have been notable focal points. Various factors contribute to this concern

  1. Physical Health: Amidst the fervor of civil rights activism, participants often confront physically demanding circumstances during impassioned protests and demonstrations. Farsighted leaders emphasize meticulous self-care as indispensable for the enduring Vigor of their efforts. This involves a conscientious focus on rest, hydration, and nutritional sustenance. The movement ethos champions a perspective of activism as a sustained journey rather than a fleeting sprint, accentuating the need to safeguard physical vitality. Strategic measures, such as medical outposts during events and comprehensive wellness initiatives, underscore the movement’s commitment to physical well-being. This dedication is not merely a personal choice but a pivotal aspect of fortifying resilience and perpetuating the movement’s potency in driving transformative change. 
  2. Mental Health : Participation in civil rights activism unveils emotionally charged scenarios, intensifying stress and precipitating mental health challenges. Visionary leaders underscore the necessity of prioritizing mental well-being, fostering environments that acknowledge the emotional gravity borne by activists and encouraging open discourse on mental health adversities. Tackling mental health exigencies within the civil rights movement involves initiatives such as facilitating access to counseling services, orchestrating workshops on stress modulation, and championing self-care practices. This conscientious prioritization of emotional welfare is not only an act of compassion but also a strategic investment in fortifying the movement’s enduring efficacy. 
  3. Equitable Healthcare Access : Redressing healthcare disparities is pivotal in civil rights advocacy. Ensuring marginalized communities access top-tier healthcare is integral for their holistic well-being, a core tenet entrenched in the civil rights movement. Recognizing healthcare as a linchpin for social justice, the movement advocates for policies dismantling barriers hindering marginalized communities’ access to quality medical care. Emphasizing inclusivity, activists press for healthcare reforms eradicating discriminatory practices and ensuring equitable distribution of medical resources. In the civil rights movement, the pursuit of universal and unbiased healthcare access is not just a healthcare imperative but a strategic stride towards dismantling systemic inequalities and advancing the broader goals of justice and equality
  4. Legal Safeguard : Erecting robust defenses against healthcare discrimination constitutes a linchpin in civil rights advocacy. The hallowed halls of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its subsequent amendments, particularly ensconced in Title VI, intricately outline provisions that outrightly proscribe discrimination in federally funded healthcare programs, delineating protections against bias grounded in race, color, or national origin. Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act extends this legal bulwark, encompassing a broader spectrum of protections including sex, age, and disability. Within the precincts of the civil rights movement, an unwavering commitment prevails to ardently champion and vigorously enforce these legal architectures. Activists, with meticulous resolve, aim not merely to redress overt biases but to dismantle deeply embedded systemic inequities within the healthcare tapestry. These legal safeguards transcend mere reactivity; they epitomize a proactive stance against discrimination, fostering a milieu where healthcare accessibility is universal and administration is impartial, irrespective of an individual’s background or identity. In this paradigm, these legal provisions stand as indispensable instruments in the movement’s ceaseless pursuit of justice and parity in healthcare.


  1. Occupational Advancements : Advocates fervently promote the pursuit of equal employment opportunities, advocating for prudent hiring practices and the eradication of discrimination in the workplace. This means a huge effort to remove entrenched systemic barriers that prevent marginalized groups from accessing high-quality jobs. 
  2. Salary Parity: The movement persistently advocates for fair and proportionate compensation for all individuals, regardless of their race, gender, or other protected characteristics. Diligent efforts are being made to correct the wage gap and promote fair pay.
  3. Economic Disparities Alleviation: Activists are passionate about reducing wealth disparities by confronting the historical and systemic factors that promote economic inequality. This means promoting policies that facilitate asset building and wealth accumulation within historically marginalized communities. 
  4. Educational Equity and Skill Development : : Economic justice initiatives often include efforts to guarantee equitable access to high-quality education and training, which facilitates the acquisition of skills necessary for lucrative employment and economic advancement..
  5. Entrepreneurial Empowerment and Business Proprietorship: Nurturing entrepreneurship within marginalized communities is a key aspect of economic justice, which includes supporting minority-owned businesses and initiatives that foster economic self-sufficiency
  6. Financial Enfranchisement: Activists vigorously promote a financial environment characterized by inclusiveness and universal accessibility, correct discriminatory credit practices, and advocate for fair access to credit and a comprehensive range of financial services. 
  7. Housing Equity Advocacy: Economic justice is intricately intertwined with housing issues, as advocates passionately push for tough housing policies, the facilitation of affordable housing alternatives, and strong initiatives to combat insidious housing discrimination.


Perpetuating institutional discrimination is a formidable obstacle, requiring concerted efforts to dismantle inequitable policies and practices embedded in the fabric of social structures. Top of Form  Systemic RacismChampions anti-discrimination policies, advocates for legislation, promotes diversity initiatives, and raises awareness to promote understanding and combat systemic racism.
Activists faced physical danger and intimidation, underscoring the dangerous nature inherent in civil rights advocacy.Violence Against ActivistsStrengthen security protocols for activists, meticulously document and expose cases of violence to galvanize public support and condemnation, and engage collaboratively with law enforcement to prosecute perpetrators, thereby ensuring the pursuit of justice.
Obstructive and prejudicial laws and policies serve as formidable barriers to social progress, necessitating legal challenges and transformative reforms and firmly establishing the foundations of egalitarian principles.Legal BarriersInitiate fair legal action to fight discriminatory laws, champion and actively participate in legislative efforts for substantive civil rights reform, and educate the public about the paramount importance of legal equality while fostering strong civic engagement.
Disorganized systems stubbornly resisted change, forced to confront the imperatives of strategic alliances and overcome resistance arising from entrenched authorities.Resistance from Power StructuresUse peaceful protest and civil disobedience to bring injustice to light, engage with influential sympathizers, and conduct public awareness campaigns to mobilize support and resistance.
Overcoming the challenges requires sustained community engagement and mobilization of grassroots movements to catalyze significant and lasting changeGrassroots EffortsEngage in broad community organizing and outreach efforts to empower local communities, promote educational and awareness initiatives to build a resilient grassroots movement, and advocate for higher citizen participation and voting as key tools to effect meaningful change at the grassroots level.
Exemplary leadership played an indispensable role in deftly navigating challenges, providing guidance and garnering steadfast support for the noble cause of civil rights.Strategic LeadershipDevelop compelling communication strategies to underscore the importance of civil rights, cultivate leaders capable of navigating challenges, building connections and inspiring action, and harness the power of media and technology to enhance the impact of the civil rights message.



Racial Equity

Historical movements for racial equity, epitomized by figures like Martin Luther King Jr., vehemently contested racial segregation and discriminatory legislation, championing desegregation, voting rights, and an end to racially motivated violence. While in the present movements like Black Lives Matter (BLM) have ascended to prominence, ardently opposing entrenched systemic racism, police brutality, and racial disparities. These movements underscore the imperative for comprehensive reform in criminal justice systems and the broader societal milieu.

Gender Parity

The suffragist movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries pursued women’s voting rights. Subsequent waves of feminism in the 1960s and 1970s addressed broader concerns, including workplace bias and reproductive rights. While in the present movement Sustained endeavors concentrate on eradicating gender-based discrimination and violence. Movements such as #MeToo strive to elevate awareness about sexual harassment and assault, engendering profound discussions on power dynamics and the crucial nuances of consent.

 LGBTQ+ Advocacy

The catalyst of the Stonewall riots in 1969 marked a pivotal moment in LGBTQ+ activism. Subsequent decades witnessed the fight for decriminalization, anti-discrimination statutes, and recent milestones in achieving marriage equality. Whereas in present scenario, Activism endures for the rights of the LGBTQ+ community, encompassing the pursuit of equal marriage rights, safeguards against discrimination, and heightened visibility. Vital roles in these movements are played by Pride events and advocacy organizations.

Rights for Immigrants

Legislative milestones such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 targeted discrimination based on national origin, offering protections to immigrants. However, movements singularly focused on immigrant rights gained prominence more recently. Whereas, Movements advocating for the rights of migrants pivot around issues such as advocating for fair immigration policies, shielding against deportation, and ensuring unimpeded access to educational and occupational opportunities.

Environmental Equity

The environmental justice movement, emerging in the late 20th century, opposed environmental racism and the disproportionate siting of hazardous facilities in marginalized communities. This activism paralleled broader environmental concerns. Whereas in recent  movements interweave civil rights with environmental concerns, spotlighting the disproportionate impact of pollution and climate change on marginalized communities, thereby advocating for environmental justice.

Indigenous Sovereignty

Movements advocating for indigenous rights, with roots extending over centuries, focused on rectifying historical injustices, securing land rights, and preserving cultural heritage. The activism of the American Indian Movement (AIM) exemplifies this struggle. Whereas in recent movements championing the rights of indigenous peoples focalize on critical issues such as land rights, the preservation of cultural heritage, and the essential acknowledgment of sovereignty.

Rights for Differently-Abled Individuals

Disability rights activism gained momentum in the mid-20th century, culminating in legislative milestones such as the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, aiming to eradicate discrimination and ensure equitable opportunities. In recent Activism for disability rights revolves around the vigorous promotion of accessibility, inclusivity, and the creation of equitable opportunities for individuals with disabilities.

Activism for Civil Liberties

Preceding the era of online activism, the civil rights movement employed diverse strategies such as grassroots mobilization, protests, and nonviolent resistance. Pivotal moments like the March on Washington in 1963 underscored the potency of collective action. In the recent movement, Social media has metamorphosed into a potent instrument for contemporary civil rights movements, facilitating the expeditious dissemination of information, orchestrating protests, and amplifying the voices of those traditionally marginalized..


This comprehensive analysis explores historical and contemporary aspects of civic engagement in civil rights movements, identifying challenges with legal landmarks, multimedia platforms, social psychology, well-being considerations, economic justice initiatives, and proposed solutions. Legislative measures, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, form the legal foundation, while multimedia platforms such as social media, documentaries, and virtual reality play a crucial role in shaping public discourse. Insights from social psychology highlight the importance of overcoming bias for inclusiveness. Challenges such as physical and mental well-being, economic justice, and systemic racism and violence against activists are addressed with proposed solutions. The analysis of the past compares historical movements with contemporary struggles, emphasizing ongoing battles for racial equality, gender equality, LGBTQ+ rights, immigrant rights, environmental justice, indigenous sovereignty, rights for differently-abled individuals, and civil liberties online activism. . In essence, this exploration underscores the enduring importance of collective action, legal advocacy, technological advancement, and social introspection in the pursuit of a more just and equitable world, inviting readers to join the ongoing journey toward civil rights reform.


  1. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Wikipedia visited on 11-12-2023
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965 visited on 11-12-2023
  3. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Fair-Housing-Act visited on 11-12-2023
  4. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-xxiv visited on 11-12-2023
  5. Title IX Education Amendments | HHS.gov visited on 11-12-2023
  6. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, As Amended | ADA.gov visited on 11-12-2023
  7. Multimedia Platforms and Social Media | Business Communication Skills for Managers (lumenlearning.com) visited on 12-12-2023
  8. https://www.simplypsychology.org/social-psychology.html visited on 12-12-2023
  9. Mental Health and Physical Health: What’s the Connection? (verywellmind.com) visited on 12-12-2023
  10. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/economic-justice visited on 13-12-2023
  11. Civil society engagement | UNEP – UN Environment Programme visited on 13-12-2023
  12.  Civil Rights Movement: Timeline, Key Events & Leaders | HISTORY visited on 13-12-2023

[1] Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Wikipedia visited on 11-12-2023

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voting_Rights_Act_of_1965 visited on 11-12-2023

[3] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Fair-Housing-Act visited on 11-12-2023

[4] https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/amendments/amendment-xxiv visited on 11-12-2023

[5] Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, As Amended | ADA.gov visited on 11-12-2023

[6] Multimedia Platforms and Social Media | Business Communication Skills for Managers (lumenlearning.com) visited on 12-12-2023

[7] https://www.simplypsychology.org/social-psychology.html visited on 12-12-2023

[8] Mental Health and Physical Health: What’s the Connection? (verywellmind.com) visited on 12-12-2023

[9] https://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/economic-justice visited on 13-12-2023

[10] Civil society engagement | UNEP – UN Environment Programme visited on 13-12-2023

[11] Civil Rights Movement: Timeline, Key Events & Leaders | HISTORY (O’Neal, 2020) visited on 13-12-2023

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