Spread the love

This article is written by Ananya V. Mehra of Amity Law School, Noida, an intern under Legal Vidhiya


The field of fashion is a dynamic and fiercely competitive domain, thriving on ingenuity and originality while heavily relying on intellectual property (IP) rights for safeguarding innovations and brand identities. Nevertheless, the fashion industry grapples with numerous challenges in ensuring effective IP protection. These challenges include the absence of consistent legislation, the intricate nature of registration procedures, the rampant proliferation of counterfeits and piracy, and the formidable task of upholding IP rights across diverse jurisdictions.

This article delves into the legal and ethical dimensions surrounding IP protection within the fashion industry, with a specific examination of India’s encounter with these issues. It scrutinizes the state of IP law in India, particularly concerning trademarks, designs, patents, and copyrights. The article lays down recommendations for securing IP protection in the Indian fashion industry.


Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), Fashion Industry, Fashion Industry in India, Intellectual Property Protection, Design, Copyright, Trademark, Intellectual Property Laws


Intellectual property stands as the legal stronghold shielding the creations of the human mind, encompassing inventions, designs, artistic works, and symbols. This protective shield proves especially vital in the fashion industry, where creativity and originality are paramount for product development and marketing. However, this industry grapples with complex challenges in terms of IP protection, such as the absence of uniform legislation, intricate registration processes, and the rampant spread of counterfeiting and piracy. This article aims to scrutinize the legal and ethical dimensions of IP protection within the fashion industry, with a specific focus on India. Despite India’s vibrant fashion scene and participation in initiatives like the Geographical Indications Act, Design Act, and the Fashion Design Council of India, the nation faces unique challenges related to traditional knowledge, globalization, and the imperative for social responsibility and sustainability. The article unfolds by providing a background on IP in the fashion industry, discussing the significance of IP protection, and analyzing the legal and ethical implications before concluding with recommendations for enhancing IP protection in the Indian fashion landscape.


The evolution of intellectual property in the fashion industry traces back to its inception, driven by the need for designers and producers to secure recognition amidst increasing competition. As the industry underwent globalization, diversification, and heightened competitiveness, the concept of IP in fashion adapted accordingly. In the contemporary scenario, IP in fashion encompasses a range of legal rights protecting various elements, including design, brand, logo, pattern, colour, fabric, and style.[1] Key forms of IP rights, such as trademark, design, patent, and copyright, play distinct roles in safeguarding different aspects of fashion products.[2] Trademark, serving as a symbol, is crucial for brand identity and customer loyalty. Design protects against imitation, patent preserves innovation, and copyright safeguards artistic and aesthetic elements. However, the enforcement and degree of IP protection vary significantly across countries and regions, influenced by legal systems, cultural norms, economic landscapes, and political climates. Robust IP regimes in regions like the European Union, the United States, and Japan contrast with weaker systems in places like China, India, and Brazil, posing challenges to compliance, awareness, and capacity. These disparities have profound implications for the global competitiveness, profitability, and sustainability of the fashion industry.

Intellectual property is a cornerstone of the fashion industry, playing a significant role in safeguarding the creative expressions, innovations, and reputations of fashion brands and designers. Its significance lies in enabling the fashion sector to differentiate its offerings, establish a unique identity in the market, and prevent undesirable practices such as imitation, copying, counterfeiting, and unfair competition, all of which could compromise the quality, value, and profitability of fashion products and services. Additionally, IP provides a legal framework for the industry to assert its rights and seek remedies in cases of infringement, allowing for the pursuit of compensation or injunctions. Moreover, IP offers avenues for commercial exploitation, including licensing, sub-branding, merchandising, and sponsorship, thereby creating opportunities for additional income and heightened exposure. Beyond its protective functions, IP serves as a powerful incentive, encouraging research and development, collaboration, and contributions to culture and the economy by rewarding creators and innovators and promoting the production of more original and diverse works.


Intellectual property rights (IPRs) refer to legal safeguards that shield human-made creations, encompassing inventions, designs, artistic endeavours, and symbols. IPRs provide the creators or proprietors with exclusive privileges to utilize, exploit, and derive benefits from their creations for a defined duration. Additionally, they empower creators to prohibit others from employing, replicating, or mimicking their work without explicit permission or authorization.

The underlying principle of IPRs is rooted in the belief that creative and innovative endeavours merit acknowledgment and reward, contributing significantly to the economic and social progress of society.[3] The rights are subject to specific constraints and exceptions allowing the utilization of protected creations for educational, research, critical, or satirical purposes without infringing upon the rights of creators or owners. Governed by national and international laws and treaties, IPRs establish standards, regulations, and procedures for safeguarding and upholding these rights across diverse countries and regions.

The fashion industry, renowned for its creativity and innovation, centres around the production and promotion of diverse fashion products like clothing, footwear, accessories, and jewellery. Various elements and features of fashion products, including design, brand, logo, pattern, colour, fabric, and style, contribute to shaping and expressing the industry’s identity, reputation, and value.

The fashion sector is impacted by different types of IPRs safeguarding distinct aspects of fashion products, namely:

1. Trademarks: These are symbols or signs identifying and distinguishing the origin and quality of a product or service. Crucial for the fashion industry, trademarks play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining brand identity, reputation, and customer loyalty, preventing consumer confusion and deception. [4]

2. Copyrights: A type of intellectual property protecting the expression of ideas and works, such as literary, artistic, musical, and cinematographic creations. Essential for the fashion sector, copyrights safeguard the artistic and aesthetic facets of fashion products, such as prints, graphics, and images. [5]

3. Patents: An intellectual property form shielding new, useful, and non-obvious inventions. Patents play a vital role in protecting the innovation and technology integral to the production and advancement of fashion products, such as new materials, fabrics, and processes.

4. Design Rights: A type of intellectual property safeguarding the appearance and shape of a product or its components. Essential for the fashion industry, design rights protect the originality and creativity of fashion products, preventing imitation by competitors.


The Trade Marks Act, 1999 outlines the significance and functions of trademarks, serving as distinctive signs that differentiate the goods or services of one entity from others. These marks can take the form of words, logos, slogans, colours, shapes, or other distinctive features, contributing to the identification of product source and quality while fostering brand recognition and goodwill.[6] Enacted in 1999, the Trade Marks Act stands as the primary legislation governing the registration and protection of trademarks in India. It covers aspects such as trademark registration procedures, the rights and remedies afforded to trademark owners, actions related to infringement and passing off, as well as provisions for licensing and assignment of trademarks. Additionally, the Act establishes administrative and judicial authorities responsible for trademark enforcement. Notably, the Trade Marks Act, 1999 embodies provisions from international treaties and conventions to which India is a party, including the Paris Convention, the TRIPS Agreement, the Madrid Protocol, and the Nice Agreement.

The Copyright Act, 1957 lays down the protective measures for the expression of ideas in tangible forms, encompassing literary, artistic, musical, dramatic, cinematographic, and sound recording works.[7] This legal framework grants authors or creators the exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute, perform, display, adapt, and communicate their works to the public. The Copyright Act serves as the primary legislation governing the safeguarding and enforcement of copyrights in India. It addresses various aspects, including the registration and duration of copyrights, the rights and remedies available to copyright owners, considerations for infringement and fair dealing exceptions, as well as provisions for licensing and assignment of copyrights. Administrative and judicial authorities dedicated to copyright enforcement are also established under this Act. Furthermore, the Copyright Act, 1957 incorporates the provisions of international treaties and conventions to which India is a signatory, including the Berne Convention, the Universal Copyright Convention, the Rome Convention, the WIPO Copyright Treaty, and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.

The Designs Act, 2000 defines a design as a characteristic involving the shape, configuration, pattern, ornament, or composition of lines or colours applied to any article, whether in two or three-dimensional form, through industrial processes or means.[8] These designs contribute significantly to the aesthetic appeal and commercial value of products. The Act serves as the principal legislation governing the registration and protection of designs in India. It encompasses provisions for the registration and duration of designs, delineates the rights and remedies available to design owners, outlines procedures for handling infringement and cancellation actions, and establishes regulations for the licensing and assignment of designs. Additionally, the Act establishes administrative and judicial authorities responsible for the enforcement of design-related matters. The Designs Act, 2000 also integrates provisions from international treaties and conventions to which India is a signatory, including the Paris Convention, the TRIPS Agreement, and the Hague Agreement.

In addition to the aforementioned laws, there are other relevant legislations in India related to the protection of intellectual property in the fashion industry. These include:

  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999, which is designed to safeguard names or indications identifying goods as originating from a specific geographical area, possessing distinct qualities, reputation, or characteristics associated with that region.[9]
  • The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001, which is aimed at preserving the rights of breeders, researchers, farmers, and communities concerning new, existing, and essentially derived plant varieties.[10]
  • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, for governing the access and benefit-sharing of biological resources and associated traditional knowledge within India.[11]
  • The Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Design Act, 2000, which is focused on protecting the layout-designs of semiconductor integrated circuits.[12]


Christian Louboutin v. Abubaker[13]

The focus was on the renowned red sole trademark associated with the French luxury shoe label Christian Louboutin. The Delhi High Court issued a temporary injunction in favour of Louboutin, prohibiting the defendant from selling shoes featuring red soles that were identical or deceptively similar. The court emphasized that the red sole constituted a widely recognized and distinctive mark, warranting protection under the Trademarks Act of 1999.

Crocs Inc. v. Bata India Ltd. and others [14]

The focus was on the design registration of clog-style shoes by the US footwear company Crocs Inc. The Delhi High Court nullified the design registration, citing a lack of novelty and originality, given its prior publication and use in multiple countries before its registration date in India. Additionally, the court deemed the design functional rather than aesthetic, rendering it ineligible for registration under the Designs Act of 2000.

Ritu Kumar v. Biba Apparels Pvt. Ltd. and another[15]

This case involved a disagreement over the use of the label ‘RITU’ between two competing fashion brands. The Delhi High Court rejected the injunction sought by Ritu Kumar against Biba Apparels for using ‘RITU WEAR’ and ‘RITU KURTIS,’ citing the common Hindi name ‘RITU’ as lacking distinctive character. The court also emphasized the absence of evidence indicating consumer confusion or deception.

People Tree v. Dior

This case involved a claim of design piracy by People Tree, a Delhi-based ethical fashion label, against Dior, a French luxury fashion house, for allegedly copying its hand block printed motif on a dress worn by actress Sonam Kapoor. People Tree alleged that Dior had copied its original artwork without permission or credit and sought compensation and apology from Dior. The case was resolved amicably, with Dior acknowledging People Tree’s design and making a donation to the Crafts Revival Trust.


The fashion industry encounters numerous challenges related to the safeguarding of its intellectual property rights. These rights play a crucial role in guaranteeing the excellence, uniqueness, and standing of fashion products, contributing to revenue generation and encouraging ongoing innovation. However, the ethical dimensions of intellectual property protection give rise to questions concerning its implications for consumer rights, cultural diversity, sustainability, and social justice.

Consumer rights, rooted in legal and moral principles, aim to safeguard individuals’ interests when purchasing goods and services. In the fashion industry, these rights extend to accessing affordable, authentic, and safe products that align with consumer expectations. However, the implementation of intellectual property protection, granting exclusive rights to intangible assets, poses various challenges to consumer rights.

Firstly, intellectual property protection may lead to heightened prices for fashion products, limiting access for lower-income consumers. Owners, aiming to recover innovation costs, may set prices that exacerbate disparities between affluent and less affluent consumers. Additionally, this protection may contribute to consumer confusion, especially when distinguishing between genuine and counterfeit products. Unauthorized replicas infringing on intellectual property rights can deceive consumers and compromise their right to accurate information.

Furthermore, intellectual property protection may curtail consumer freedom of choice and expression by limiting modifications to purchased products. For instance, copyrighted designs on clothing may restrict consumers from altering items without permission. These effects underscore the ethical implications surrounding the balance between intellectual property owner interests and consumer rights, necessitating a fair and equitable resolution in the fashion industry that upholds both creators’ and buyers’ rights.

Cultural diversity embraces and celebrates the myriad cultural identities within various communities, encompassing ethnic, religious, linguistic, and indigenous groups. Meanwhile, intellectual property protection serves as the legal framework granting exclusive rights to creators and owners of intangible assets like trademarks, designs, patents, and copyrights, stemming from human creativity and innovation. In the realm of the fashion industry, the impact of intellectual property protection on cultural diversity is contingent on its application and enforcement.

One potential avenue involves intellectual property protection fostering a collaborative approach between the fashion industry and diverse communities. This collaboration entails recognizing and rewarding traditional designs and symbols, respecting the cultural heritage of communities, and obtaining consent, credit, and compensation for utilizing cultural expressions. Some fashion designers have exemplified this by partnering with indigenous artisans, showcasing unique skills, and sharing benefits and recognition. This approach enhances cultural diversity within the fashion industry, concurrently preserving and safeguarding the cultural identity of communities.

Conversely, intellectual property protection may lead to the appropriation and exploitation of diverse cultural heritages. In this scenario, the fashion industry may copy or imitate traditional designs without consent, using them inappropriately, and causing harm to communities. Instances of cultural appropriation, where brands use indigenous patterns without acknowledging their meaning or sharing profits with communities, erode cultural diversity within the fashion industry, disrespecting the cultural heritage of communities.

Sustainability in the fashion industry revolves around meeting current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own. It entails designing, producing, and disposing of clothing and accessories in an environmentally conscious manner that upholds social and ethical values. Concurrently, intellectual property protection provides legal frameworks for exclusive rights to intangible assets resulting from creativity and innovation, such as trademarks, designs, patents, and copyrights. The impact of intellectual property protection on sustainability in fashion varies based on its application.

One positive scenario involves intellectual property protection acting as a driver for sustainability by motivating the industry to reduce its environmental impact. This can manifest through investments in research and innovation, leading to the creation of eco-friendly materials and technologies, incentivized by patents for sustainable materials like organic cotton or recycled polyester. Intellectual property protection becomes a catalyst, offering financial incentives and a competitive edge, fostering a positive industry reputation and customer loyalty.

Intellectual property protection may hinder sustainability by fostering a culture of fast fashion and overconsumption. This occurs when large quantities of inexpensive, low-quality products flood the market, often discarded quickly, contributing to waste and pollution. Instances of copying designs without respecting intellectual property rights compound the problem, creating barriers to achieving sustainability and encouraging unethical practices among both producers and consumers.

Social justice in the fashion industry involves ensuring fairness and equal distribution of benefits among stakeholders, including designers, producers, retailers, and marginalized groups facing discrimination. Concurrently, intellectual property protection, granting exclusive rights like trademarks and patents, plays a pivotal role. The impact of intellectual property on social justice within fashion varies based on its application.

Intellectual property protection can positively contribute to social justice by empowering and safeguarding the rights of creators. It enables fair returns and prevents unauthorized use, as seen in instances where designers protect distinctive designs like Christian Louboutin’s red sole or Burberry’s check pattern, fostering a sense of identity and reputation.

However, intellectual property protection may also undermine social justice by perpetuating power imbalances. Owners can exclude others, charge exorbitant prices, and appropriate cultural symbols without consent. Some fashion brands face criticism for exploiting indigenous designs, creating legal barriers and social injustices in the industry. In such cases, intellectual property protection becomes a tool for dominance and marginalization, contributing to wealth disparities among stakeholders. Striking a balance between protecting creators and ensuring fair access and affordability is essential for fostering social justice in the dynamic realm of fashion.


In the context of the fashion industry in India, effective enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) involves several key practices and strategies.

Firstly, a crucial step is the registration of IPRs with relevant authorities, such as the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks, the Registrar of Copyrights, and the Geographical Indications Registry. This initial registration not only grants legal recognition but also serves as tangible evidence of ownership. It empowers right holders to pursue legal measures against any infringement.

Another imperative strategy is vigilant monitoring of the market. Right holders must actively scan for unauthorized use or reproduction of their IPRs, including counterfeit products and activities at trade fairs and online platforms. Utilizing advanced tools like web crawlers, image recognition, and blockchain technology aids in the detection and tracking of infringing activities.

Prompt and effective legal action is a critical component of IPR enforcement. Right holders should swiftly address infringements by employing measures such as sending cease and desist letters, filing complaints with law enforcement, initiating civil or criminal suits, and seeking injunctions, damages, or confiscation of infringing goods. Collaborating with legal professionals, industry associations, and enforcement agencies enhances the efficacy of these actions.

Creating awareness and educating stakeholders play a significant role as well. Right holders should actively engage consumers, retailers, distributors, and others in understanding the significance and benefits of respecting and protecting IPRs within the fashion industry. Emphasizing the adverse consequences of dealing with counterfeit or pirated products, including revenue loss, damage to reputation, compromised quality, innovation, and consumer safety, is essential.

Furthermore, collaboration and cooperation are key strategies for effective IPR enforcement. Right holders should join forces with each other and collaborate with the government, judiciary, media, academia, and civil society. This collaborative effort aims to establish a supportive environment conducive to enforcing IPRs in the fashion industry. Participation in national and international forums, networks, and initiatives facilitates the sharing of best practices, experiences, and challenges. It also serves as a platform to advocate for stronger and harmonized IPR laws and policies.


In conclusion, the examination of the legal and ethical implications of intellectual property protection in the fashion industry, with a specific focus on India’s experience, underscores the intricate dynamics influenced by global trends and unique regional challenges. Navigating this complex landscape demands a comprehensive and balanced approach.

The vitality of safeguarding intellectual property in the ever-evolving fashion industry cannot be overstated. From the foundational step of registration with competent authorities to proactive market monitoring, swift legal responses, and community-wide awareness efforts, stakeholders play pivotal roles in shaping a responsible and ethical fashion ecosystem.

The synergy between legal measures and ethical considerations highlights the delicate equilibrium necessary for successful intellectual property rights (IPRs) enforcement. Collaboration emerges as a central theme, requiring concerted efforts from industry players, government bodies, and society at large to foster an environment where innovation is rewarded, creativity is shielded, and ethical standards are upheld.

India’s experience serves as a microcosm of the broader global landscape, showcasing both triumphs and challenges. The path forward involves an ongoing dialogue to fortify legal frameworks and cultivate a culture valuing and respecting intellectual property. This journey is pivotal, ensuring that the fashion industry can responsibly harness its creative potential, thus securing a future where innovation flourishes within an ethically sound framework. The legal and ethical considerations surrounding intellectual property protection in the fashion industry reflect not just a legal obligation but a commitment to nurturing creativity, safeguarding innovation, and upholding ethical standards in the pursuit of style and design.


  1. Chopra, Akansha, iPleaders, (2021), Implications of Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry, (Accessed: January 21, 2024), https://blog.ipleaders.in/implications-of-intellectual-property-in-fashion-industry/
  2.  Namrata, iPleaders, (2021), Fashion Industry and Challenges for IP Protection, (Accessed: January 21, 2024), https://blog.ipleaders.in/fashion-industry-challenges-ip-protection/
  3. Gandhi, Rohan, LexForti, (2020), Role of Intellectual Property in the Fashion Industry, (Accessed January 21, 2024), https://lexforti.com/legal-news/role-of-intellectual-property-in-the-fashion-industry/#:~:text=With%20the%20help%20of%20actual,designs%20and%20products%20from%20infringement.
  4. Chitkara, Shefali, iPleaders, (2021), Applicability of IPR Laws to Fashion Industry in India, (Accessed: January 21, 2024), https://blog.ipleaders.in/applicability-ipr-laws-fashion-industry-india/
  5. Chaturvedi, Saransh, Mondaq, (2021), Fashion Industry and Challenges for IP Protection, (Accessed: January 21, 2024), https://www.mondaq.com/india/trademark/1024232/fashion-industry-and-challenges-for-ip-protection
  6. Sah, Neha and JJ, Ezhilanban, CSIR-NIScPR, (2023), IPR and Indian Fashion Industry: Challenges and Possibility, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://nopr.niscpr.res.in/bitstream/123456789/62588/1/JIPR-28%285%29%20432-437.pdf
  7. Biswas, Rounak, iPleaders, (2018), IPR Laws Applicable to Fashion Industry in India, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://blog.ipleaders.in/ipr-laws-applicable-to-fashion-industry/
  8. Borkar, Shubham, Khurana & Khurana, (2018), Fashion Law in India, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://www.khuranaandkhurana.com/2018/12/14/fashion-law-in-india/?utm_source=Mondaq&utm_medium=syndication
  9. Johnson, Isha and Verma, Sakshi, Lawctopus, (2023), Intersection of Inspiration and Infringement in the Fashion Industry, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/copyright-infringement-in-fashion-industry/
  10.  IamIP, (2023), Navigating Intellectual Property: Understanding the Differences between Patent, Trademark, and  Copyright, (Accessed: January 20, 2024), https://iamip.com/navigating-intellectual-property-understanding-the-differences-between-patent-trademark-and-copyright/
  11.  Scroll, (2018), Christian Dior Settles Plagiarism Dispute with Indian Design Studio People Tree, (Accessed: January 23, 2024), https://scroll.in/latest/880649/french-brand-christian-dior-settles-plagiarism-dispute-with-indian-design-studio-people-tree
  12. Fashion & Law Journal, (2021), Christian Louboutin Sas v. Abubaker & Ors., 2018 (7) AD (DEL) 376, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://fashionlawjournal.com/christian-louboutin-sas-v-abubaker-ors-2018-7-ad-del-376/
  13. Mondaq, (2020), Crocs Inc. v. Bata India Ltd. And Others, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://www.mondaq.com/india/trademark/902632/crocs-inc-v-bata-india-ltd-and-others
  14. Ashwin, Enhelion, (2022), Ritu Kumar v. Biba, (Accessed: January 22, 2024), https://enhelion.com/blogs/2022/05/16/ritu-kumar-v-biba/
  15. S, Yamuna, International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews, (2023), Role of Intellectual Property Right in Fashion Industry, (Accessed: January 23, 2024), https://ijrpr.com/uploads/V4ISSUE8/IJRPR16159.pdf

[1] Kumari Muskan and Dishi Mishra, Fashion Law and IPR: An Analysis, Legal Service India, (last visited: January 20, 2024), https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-14266-fashion-law-and-ipr-an-analysis-.html#:~:text=IP%20protects%20the%20artistic%20expression,need%20for%20robust%20IP%20rights.

[2] Isha Johnson and Sakshi Verma, Intersection of Inspiration and Infringement in the Fashion Industry, Lawctopus, (July 18, 2023), https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/copyright-infringement-in-fashion-industry/#:~:text=Intellectual%20property%20laws%2C%20such%20as,new%20and%20unique%20fashion%20creations.

[3] Oishika Banerji, Theories of Protection of Intellectual Property Rights, iPleaders, (October 24, 2024), https://blog.ipleaders.in/theories-protection-intellectual-property-rights/

[4] Pratibha Tripathi, Trademark as the Most Effective Way to Protect a Fashion Brand: An Analysis, iPleaders, (August 10, 2021), https://blog.ipleaders.in/trademark-effective-way-protect-fashion-brand-analysis/

[5] Manish Jindal, Intellectual Property Rights and Copyright, Bytescare, (December 6, 2023), https://bytescare.com/blog/intellectual-property-rights-copyright

[6] Trademarks in India: Functions, Subject Matter and Types¸ The Law Advice, (January 8, 2024), https://www.thelawadvice.com/articles/trademarks-in-india-functions-subject-matter-and-types

[7] Shalu Gothi, Copyright Act, 1957, (March 30, 2020), https://blog.ipleaders.in/an-overview-of-the-copyright-act-1957/

[8] Shruti Pandey, All You Need to Know About Design Act, 2000, iPleaders, (March 9, 2023), https://blog.ipleaders.in/design-act-2000/

[9] Shubhangi Sharma and Shriya Singh, All About Geographical Indications, iPleaders, (December 9, 2023), https://blog.ipleaders.in/geographic-indication-law-in-india/#:~:text=In%20India%2C%20Section%202%20(1,or%20manufactured%20in%20the%20territory

[10] Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001, Byjus, https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/protection-of-plant-varieties-and-farmers-rights-act-2001-upsc-notes/

[11] Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Drishti IAS, (December 28, 2020), https://www.drishtiias.com/to-the-points/paper3/biological-diversity-act-2002

[12] Hitender Sharma, Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Design Act, 2000, iPleaders, (September 21, 2016), https://blog.ipleaders.in/semiconductor-integrated-circuit-layout-design-act-2000/

[13] 2018 (7) AD (DEL) 376

[14] 2019 SCC OnLine Del 6808

[15] 230 (2016) DLT 109

Disclaimer: The materials provided herein are intended solely for informational purposes. Accessing or using the site or the materials does not establish an attorney-client relationship. The information presented on this site is not to be construed as legal or professional advice, and it should not be relied upon for such purposes or used as a substitute for advice from a licensed attorney in your state. Additionally, the viewpoint presented by the author is of a personal nature.


Leave a Reply

Avatar placeholder

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *