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Cyberterrorism: A Concern for Growing Digital

This Article is written by Paras Chugh of BBa. LL.B 4th sem of RNB Global University.


The fusion of terrorism and the internet is known as cyberterrorism. The Information Technology Act’s Section 66F deals with cyberterrorism and associated penalties. Cyberattacks happen frequently. The risks are the same for both small and large businesses. Anybody could be the victim of a cyberattack at any time. Research shows that after an assault, some small businesses are unable to recover. That is the maximum amount of damage that cybercrime is capable of. From that point on, it will only get worse. Your IT department may feel as though it is the only one responsible for cybersecurity. On the other hand, a disproportionate amount of the responsibility for protecting the privacy and data of your business falls on digital marketers. Given that you use marketing techniques to reach a large audience, you are a top target for hackers. When you post an innocent link to your social network page and someone clicks through, this is what happens. This implies that if the link contains malware, it will infect everyone who clicks on it. When the attack is conducted through a reliable web source, the effects will be significantly worse.

Because content marketing is so effective at attracting and retaining customers, many businesses now use it. Additionally, these websites offer customers useful information. Cyberattacks on content management systems (CMS) are a possibility. Popular content management systems (CMS) for propagating malware include WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla. Digital marketing via email carries a significant danger of being compromised by online crooks. Businesses’ email accounts might be used by hackers to send out spam messages with viruses, which would cause other websites hosted on the same server to be banned. If this risk recurs, these websites might be blocked or listed, and email advertising and promotion might be stopped. Identity theft is a big concern associated with social media advertising.


Cyberterrorism is the unlawful use of cyberattacks and cyber threats against computers, networks, and the data they store to frighten or coerce a government or its citizens in the service of political or social goals. Violence against non-combatant targets is caused by “premeditated, politically motivated attacks by sub-national groups or clandestine operatives against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data.”

Cybersecurity in Digital Marketing

The success of your business depends on having a strong digital marketing strategy in place. Your entire marketing campaign must also be considered secure, from websites to emails to social media. You and your client’s personal information may be jeopardized if you ignore this detail. Here are a few examples of common cyberattacks using digital marketing:

• “Virus infection from downloaded files or links”

• “Hijacking and redirection of browsers”

• “the theft of sensitive data and other information.”

 · “Identity theft” 

“Propagation of fake news”

“DDoS attacks on websites”

“WordPress malware”

In addition to these risks, there are several other hacks that most digital marketers are unaware of.

The reputation of your company will benefit from your wise decision to invest in a cybersecurity strategy. In addition to the obvious advantage of having a strong anti-malware system, there are numerous other advantages. Another advantage is that your clients’ private information will be protected. This software also protects against cross-site scripting, SQL injection attacks, denial-of-service attacks, and password cracking.

It is now obvious that your IT department is not the only one responsible for cybersecurity. If your company’s sensitive data has been compromised or your systems have been hacked, you cannot justifiably claim ignorance. Everyone has a role to play in ensuring the security of the internet.

Protecting against cybercrime is not an impossible task; it is, however, doable. Here are a few things to keep in mind if cybersecurity is a concern for your digital marketing strategy.

Threats to cyber security for digital marketers

You might think that cybersecurity is an issue that just your company’s IT department needs to deal with in the world of digital marketing.

If that is the case, then the following is good news: Everyone can contribute to keeping the internet safe. Acting ignorant won’t help if your company’s sensitive data has been compromised.

Nevertheless, all hope is not lost. You can easily protect your team and business from the majority of online criminals.

a. Domain

Another website host, besides WordPress, also has issues. The prevalence of attacks like XSS, SQL injection, and DDoS, which all rely on vulnerabilities in domain-level security, has increased recently. If independent contractors or consultants have access to your website, it is much more dangerous.

b. social media

Marketers today are aware of the power of social media and how to take advantage of it. Nevertheless, such immense power comes with a cost. Social media accounts are targeted by hackers because they can cause more harm than just obtaining personal information by taking control of the accounts and using them to broadcast inappropriate content until you pay them to stop.

There may be numerous people on your team that are utilizing the same social media account, which makes this an issue for your marketing department in particular. Everyone should use a password manager to keep all their passwords safe.

In addition, make sure your employees are aware of the dangers of receiving unwanted social media communications. Hackers may also use Facebook and Instagram to infiltrate your computer systems, as with email scams.

c. The bottom line

Because it is not mentioned in their job descriptions, digital marketers cannot afford to ignore cybersecurity. Your personal information is at risk when there is a hack or data breach, but so are the businesses you deal with. Simply put, the risk is too great for them.

d. Reputational harm

It can be difficult to win back the public’s trust after a hack permanently damages a company’s reputation. If it appears that your business is not taking the necessary precautions to protect the personal information it collects from customers, you could lose business. The malicious messages they might post to the social media accounts of your company’s followers if they hack your accounts could further damage your reputation.

e. being outperformed by rivals

Imagine a hacker gaining access to the business plans of the company, which might include growth plans and plans for new products and/or services. In that scenario, they may try to sell this information to competitors so that they can gain from their toil and creative solutions. Of course, you could go to court in this case, but that would be a tedious and inconvenient process. The best way to deal with these problems is to tackle them head-on by taking precautions and downloading anti-viral software.

f. Ransomware

A company’s finances can also be severely strained by ransomware, which may prevent employees from using IT systems unless the corporation pays a hacker.

Organizations may also be forced to hire lawyers and other experts to comply with cybersecurity regulations. If they are the target of a cyberattack that leads to legal action being taken against the company, they can also be required to pay much more attorney fees and damages.

Due to the subsequent legal actions, the company agreed to pay up to $425 million in compensation to those who were harmed.

g. Operations Disruption

Businesses frequently incur indirect costs as a result of cyberattacks in addition to direct financial losses, such as the possibility of a large interruption in operations that could result in revenue losses. Cybercriminals can hinder a business’s regular operations in many ways, such as by infecting computer systems with malware that deletes highly valuable data or by installing malicious code on a server that prevents users from accessing your website.

Hacktivists are a common tool for upsetting regular business operations since they have been known to hack into the computer networks of government institutions or large corporations in the name of exposing injustice or promoting transparency.

h. Modified Business Procedures

Organizations may be affected by cybercrime in ways other than financial ones. If businesses wish to prevent exposing sensitive data to unauthorized access, they must reevaluate how they collect and store information. Customers’ financial and personal data, including credit card numbers, Social Security numbers, and birth dates, has been purged from numerous businesses’ databases in recent years.

Some companies have closed their internet storefronts because they believe they won’t be able to adequately protect themselves from hackers. Additionally, customers are more curious to know how the businesses they do business with address security issues. They are more inclined to support companies that are forthright and open about the security precautions they have taken to safeguard themselves.

i. Intellectual Property

A company’s most valuable assets are usually its go-to-market plans, technology, and product designs, as well as its partnerships and customer relationships.

A significant portion of this intellectual property is stored on the cloud, where it is vulnerable to theft and cyberattacks. In the past ten years, almost 30% of American businesses have alleged that a Chinese rival has stolen their intellectual property.

J. lost money.

One of the worst effects of a cyberattack is a sharp decline in revenue as customers seek safer havens. The possibility of financial losses for businesses as a result of hacker extortion attempts Terrorists targeted Sony Pictures as it prepared to distribute “The Interview,” a comedy that depicts an attempt to kill North Korean leader Kim Jong Un. Hackers stole private information from the business, including degrading emails and reviews of workers’ work performance. Although it is commonly believed that North Korea was behind the tragedy, the country has denied culpability. Because of this, Sony Pictures chose to release the film online rather than in theatres, costing the business $30 million.


Since digital marketing uses both your company’s and your customer’s data, marketers must proceed with the utmost caution when launching campaigns. Here are a few of the locations that require additional caution when it comes to internet security.

1. Email

Even though email marketing may seem like a thing of the past, it is still one of the best ways to advertise a business today. Digital marketing offers one of the highest rates of return on investment (ROI) and has the potential to increase website traffic and conversion rates.

These thieves frequently send emails that appear to be authentic but contain links to malicious files or bogus websites. To obtain your personal information, hackers send emails that appear to be from legitimate businesses like banks, PayPal, Amazon, Netflix, government agencies, or non-profits. Furthermore, the knowledge you have given the adversary influences the type of assault that will follow. Your digital marketing team is especially vulnerable to these kinds of attacks because they are the ones that interact with customers frequently (or hackers disguised as customers). Make sure that everyone on your team understands how to spot a phishing email to keep your emails secure. By adhering to the preceding suggestions, in addition to using a safe password and your email provider’s spam filter, you can help reduce these hazards.

2. WordPress

This list’s inclusion of WordPress might come as a surprise. If you read the headlines about cybersecurity, you will realize that WordPress is one of the most frequently targeted CMS systems. In many situations, hackers start their attacks by taking advantage of the platform’s security flaws. Other hackers exploit the vulnerabilities in popular WordPress plug-ins.

In addition to utilizing outdated software, hackers may access a website or make it unavailable using one of the following techniques:

• “DDoS Attack: To crash your server and website, this attack floods your website with an absurd quantity of traffic.”

• “Cross-site Scripting” refers to the act of a hacker inserting harmful code into your website to steal data entering your system.

• “SQL assaults”: “The hacker attempts to access the database of your website.”

• “Password Attack”: making it simpler for hackers to access your data by using weak passwords, such as personal information, previously used passwords, or simple characters

The best way to protect your WordPress account from online threats is to keep it updated. Enabling automatic updates guarantees that you receive urgent security fixes. Keep an eye on your installed plugins and extensions to make sure they are up-to-date.

Use strong passwords and enable two-factor authentication when it’s possible. Create a web application firewall in the background of your website to protect it. You need a digital certificate to use SSL to secure your website.

3. Social networking

With billions of users worldwide, social media is currently one of the most effective digital marketing tools. Social media sites like Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, and WhatsApp are used by people of all ages. On the other hand, substantial risk comes along with substantial opportunity. Cybercriminals frequently target social media accounts, and they don’t just target the accounts of famous people. It’s best if they can cause as much damage as possible by hijacking other people’s accounts. If an attacker manages to get your login information, they might also hijack accounts and post offensive content on your profile. Those that are harassed might receive payment for their efforts, or they might be employed to do the unpleasant labor by the companies they are annoying. Due to the widespread practice of having multiple users log into the same social media account at once, marketing teams are especially vulnerable. To prevent the sharing of your login information, you can use a password manager or a social media management tool. This involves educating staff members about the dangers of link-containing unsolicited social media interactions. Just as they may do with emails, hackers may access your system through social networking sites like Facebook and other platforms to trick you into giving sensitive information.

4. CRM Software

Since it contains all of your client’s personal information, CRM (customer relationship management) software is an essential part of any digital marketing plan. In a CRM system, you may save and analyze client information and use it to develop a successful marketing strategy for your business. Assume that hackers gain access to your CRM system. They will have access to such knowledge, which they might use to perpetrate crimes. You will pay for this breach, but it could also damage the reputation of your business.

It is not sufficient to use a complicated password to protect your CRM software. It will not be as successful as you anticipate, so you must switch to a different strategy. Why? because most breaches start from the inside. Ensure that the data in your CRM platform is only accessible to dependable individuals.

To make sure they can be trusted, those who have access should be thoroughly screened. Perform background checks on your staff before providing them with customer information. I urge you to think about employing account monitoring software. That would be ideal.

The prohibition on enabling employees to bring their own devices to work should also be lifted. Each employee should only have access to one device, which should be utilized for formal business functions only.


One of the most prominent and effective methods for combating cybercrime is endpoint security, commonly referred to as endpoint protection. Endpoint security, also referred to as endpoint protection, is a tactic for safeguarding client devices that are remotely connected to computer networks. The incorporation of laptops, tablets, smartphones, and other wireless devices into company networks makes it easier for hackers to access corporate networks. One of the key factors in the deployment of endpoint software is its ability to prevent problems from arising. The software can stop issues before they start, as opposed to only fixing them once they start.

A firewall won’t stop malware from entering a network via an external device that is connected to the network. Antivirus software, in general, will react to viruses. It won’t necessarily stop people from accessing the network, though. This suggests that even if you have these two defences against hackers in place if you don’t decide to spend money on endpoint protection for all of your company’s PCs, your marketing strategy won’t be safe.

Your whole B2B marketing plan and strategy should include an integral part of how to implement a successful cybersecurity approach. You retain your brand values while safeguarding the interests of the company by proving to your business partners that you take your cybersecurity responsibilities seriously.

You must take cybercrime seriously if you want your digital marketing company or your work to succeed. Cybercrime is growing to be a major problem for those who use computers and the Internet, according to some specialists from businesses that specialize in digital forensics. He thinks that because people are relying more on technology, hackers are becoming more skilled. Given the foregoing, here are some recommendations for protecting your digital marketing business or your digital marketing job from cybercrime.

a. Current Software

Taking these easy procedures could keep your digital marketing company safe from cybercriminals. One of the most common ways for hackers to access accounts and data is through software code weaknesses. An update is released to fix a bug in the program after it is found and reported to the creators. Because of this, hackers may find this bug in the code and use it to access a user’s account, document, etc. Hackers can track which software has been updated and which has not, so it’s crucial to keep your software up to date.

b. Security of Email Marketing

To safeguard your marketing materials and the customers’ personal information, we must make sure the email marketing system is secure. Since email is a key tool in digital marketing, a hacker would try to gain access to an email account.

Use email marketing solutions with security features that encrypt and limit access to the information they contain if you want to safeguard the private information of your consumers. Employees should receive training on keeping these systems secure and preventing data breaches to ensure the security of their marketing emails.

c. Encrypt and Backup Sensitive Data

The simplest method to prevent a security breach and stop hackers from stealing all of your data in the event of cybercrime is to encrypt and back up your data. This indicates that only those who are aware of the password or decryption key may unlock the encrypted data. Backing up data is as easy as creating copies of it and putting them on another device or in the cloud.

d. Establish strict restrictions.

Businesses engaged in digital marketing should enact strict policies that forbid employees from installing or opening files that are infected with malware. By imposing strong digital restrictions, you can protect yourself from a disastrous event. Being proactive and implementing strict controls are the only requirements to stop malware from accessing the computers and networks of your business.

Maintain the safety of digital marketing content. You must take every effort to keep your systems secure because digital marketing companies are frequently targets of cybercriminals. To keep yourself, your staff, your clients, and your entire organisation safe and secure, keep these four digital marketing security suggestions in mind. Utilizing the suggestions in this manual can assist you in avoiding becoming a victim of cybercrime.


Trade and cybersecurity policy can cooperate to support growth in digital trade and improve cybersecurity outcomes, even though digital trade increases cybersecurity risks.

Data accessibility—The use of analytics and machine learning to track network activity plays a growing role in the analysis of risks and anomalies as cybersecurity defences become more sophisticated. Requiring data to be localised limits how businesses can use big data analytics to evaluate risk throughout their international operations and supply chains. The risk and expense of a data breach are also increased by forcing data into particular locations. The commitments made by the CPTPP and USMCA are to advance digital trade opportunities and cybersecurity outcomes, as well as to avoid data localization requirements and allow information to flow across borders (with the appropriate exceptions).

The sharing of information on threats and vulnerabilities in real-time to foster awareness, plan responses, and assist targets in adapting and responding has become a crucial component of cybersecurity policies, as reflected in the U.S. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act. Dealing with foreign governments or organisations exacerbates the trust issues that come up when sharing confidential or proprietary information in domestic settings. However, the United States is working to enhance information exchange with its allies, partners, and throughout supply chains. Building channels for information sharing between the public and commercial sectors may be a commitment in trade agreements. For instance, the trade agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada has a commitment to information exchange and best practises as a means of preventing and countering cyberattacks.

Cybersecurity Guidelines: Based on best practises, cybersecurity standards can provide a consistent strategy for tackling cybersecurity risks. The International Standards Organisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), for example, have created many cybersecurity-related standards, such as the ISO/IEC 27000 series and industry-specific standards for shipping, healthcare, and electric utilities. The most effective standards are those that are frameworks for managing risk rather than ones that prescribe a specific method, allowing industry and government to develop cybersecurity measures that are best suited to their operations and risk profiles. As a result, the NIST Cyber Framework’s cyber risk management framework is not country-specific to the United States and may be applied internationally because it draws on international standards like ISO 27001 as references. With commitments to create worldwide standards and to use existing international standards as the foundation for domestic regulation, trade agreements can be used to encourage the development of internationally consistent and least trade-restrictive approaches to cybersecurity. Concerns that cybersecurity legislation is a covert trade restriction intended instead to benefit domestic industry can be addressed by using international standards as the foundation for cybersecurity policy.

A CERTIFICATE PROVIDING ADHERENCE TO CYBERSECURITY REQUIREMENTS Consumer and corporate confidence in the government’s and companies’ cybersecurity can be increased by compliance certification. In the Baldridge Performance Excellence Programme, which promotes self-assessment of compliance, NIST has devised an alternative strategy. Trade agreements can support conformity assessment regimes and seek to reduce the burden such regimes place on trade by requiring governments to allow other parties to demonstrate and carry out conformity assessment of products in the country of export and cybersecurity regulations in the country of import. Additional disciplines that contribute to the consideration of trade consequences in the establishment of cybersecurity regulation include commitments that conformity assessment criteria be non-discriminatory and not impose covert limits on international commerce.

A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO CYBERSECURITY Cybersecurity efforts should “seek to decrease the risk to an acceptable level proportional to the economic and social advantages expected from those activities while taking into account the legitimate interests of others,” according to the OECD. The EU’s Network and Information System Directive calls for security measures that are “appropriate and proportionate… to manage the risks posed to the security of network and information systems,” and the NIST framework also depends on risk assessments customised to each organization’s needs. The following step is to make decisions about what actions to take, what level of risk reduction may be anticipated, and how much it will cost. Because cybersecurity threats are dynamic and change quickly, addressing risk is a dynamic process that necessitates routine risk reassessments and evaluation of what else may be required to decrease risk to acceptable levels. In contrast, a highly prescriptive rule may quickly become obsolete or encourage box-checking rather than a careful analysis of whether the actions taken are lowering risk.

Engaging business and government leaders and incorporating cyber risk management into the foundation of corporate and governmental practice are additional requirements for developing an effective approach to cybersecurity. The USMCA acknowledges the value of adopting risk-based cybersecurity strategies rather than prescriptive ones, including risk-based strategies that depend on widely accepted international standards and best practices.


The Cyberterrorism Act, the Information Technology Act, and Indian Law

The Information Technology Act, sometimes known as the Act, authorises laws about cyber terrorism. The Act’s Section 66F establishes a framework for law enforcement to combat cyberterrorism. Along with three requirements for an act to qualify as cyberterrorism, it stipulates penalties for the crime up to and including life in prison:

  1. Intent: The act must be done with the intent to terrorise people or to undermine or endanger India’s sovereignty, unity, integrity, or security.

2. Acting must result in unlawful attempts to intrusion or access any computer resource, deny access to any legally authorised person from any online or computer resource or network, or introduce or cause to introduce any computer contaminant, all of which are prohibited.

3. Harm: The act must also result in harm, such as human death or injury, damage to or destruction of property, an adverse effect on the vital information infrastructure (CII), human injury or death, or interruptions that could potentially disrupt life-sustaining services or supplies.

In addition, Section 66F also applies when someone purposefully infiltrates or accesses a computer resource without authorization or by abusing his legitimate authorization to gain access to data, information, or computer bases that have been restricted for Indian security interests or whose disclosure would jeopardize India’s sovereignty, etc.

CII and protected systems The Act includes a provision for “protected systems” that allows the appropriate authority to designate any computer resource as a “protected system” if it directly or indirectly affects the CII facility. If someone attempts to secure access to a protected system or secures access to one, Section 70(3) imposes a sentence of up to 10 years in prison and a fine. CII is defined as “the computer resource, the incapacitation or destruction of which shall have a devastating impact on national security, economics, public health, or safety” in Section 70’s explanatory clause.

The National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) is the designated national nodal agency for CII protection by the central government under Section 70A of the Act. To address issues with cybersecurity and cyberwarfare, the Union government also established the Defence Cyber Agency.

The Computer Emergency Response Team of India (CERT-In) To preserve India’s cybersecurity and combat threats to it, Section 70B of the Act mandates the creation of CERT-In. The CERT-In is tasked with defending India’s online infrastructure from cyberattacks, publishing alerts and advisories on the most recent cyber threats, and coordinating countermeasures to prevent and address any potential cybersecurity incident.

It serves as the country’s watch and alert system and carries out tasks such as:

  • gather, examine, and share data on cybersecurity-related incidents.
  • Cyber incident forecasting and alerting; immediate action to address cybersecurity incidents
  • coordinating the reaction to cyberattacks
  • Publish directives, cautions, and other information on cybersecurity precautions.

To combat domain-specific cyber threats and build a more secure cybersecurity ecosystem in the relevant domains, such as power grids and thermal energy, India has developed domain-specific computer emergency response teams (CERTs). Additionally, sectoral CERTs have been established in the cybersecurity industries of finance and defense to meet the needs of such important domains.

National Cyber Security Policy:

The 2013 release of India’s National Cyber Security Policy intends to protect Indian cyberspace and strengthen its resilience to cyber threats across all industries. It intends to provide strategies for safeguarding India’s CII as well as procedures for efficiently fending off cyberattacks. It also emphasises a trustworthy and secure cyber ecosystem in India.

With the help of the policy, a secure computing environment has been created, and extraordinary trust and confidence in electronic transactions have grown. In addition, a crisis management strategy has been implemented to stop terrorist strikes made possible by the internet. Additionally, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act was modified by Parliament in 2019 to enable the NIA to look into and prosecute instances of cyberterrorism.

Technology and threat intelligence also play significant roles in the fight against traditional and cyberterrorism. The multi-agency centre (MAC), which was established at the national level following the Kargil intrusion, as well as subsidiary MACs (SMACs), which were established at the state level, have been strengthened and reorganised to enable them to operate on a 24×7 basis. Every organisation engaged in counterterrorism is a member of the MAC, which is made up of about 28 entities. Another crucial component of the national plan is this.


India’s economy, which is rapidly growing, seeks to take control of the world’s supply chain and internationalize. With this vision comes a great duty to safeguard cyberspace from potential risks, such as cyberterrorism. However, India has historically been a target for cyberattacks. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of digital platforms for key economic transactions, which has exacerbated the terrible effects of cyberterrorism.

Cyber terrorists aim to bring down a country’s CI, and certain services, like telecommunications, banking, finance, military installations, and emergency services, are more susceptible to attacks. Given that India’s cyberspace has become increasingly vulnerable to cyberterrorism, it is important to understand the possible threat that cyberterrorism poses to a country like India.

Therefore, it is imperative to modify and modernise the current machinery to combat the strategic threat of cyberterrorism and provide effective justifications for admitting the worldwide pandemic. Although the Act has provisions addressing cyber terrorism, the following changes are recommended to make it a more targeted piece of law to combat cyber terrorism:

The act was initially passed to legitimise online sales. But its precursor today shouldn’t be restricted to e-commerce alone. It must also have the intention of thwarting cyberterrorism.

The inclusion of “the use of cyberspace and cyber communication” should broaden the definition of “cyber terrorism.” The use of cyberspace for communication and other related purposes to further or carry out terrorist aims is not covered by this clause. To stop cyberterrorism, the Act should include clauses that address such actions.

The Act needs a specific chapter on cyberterrorism to deal with all the complex components and aspects of the acts that constitute cyberterrorism in detail and to focus on the direction of the Act to combat it.


The Information Technology Act was revised in 2008 to include clauses addressing cyber terrorism. The use of the Internet by terrorists has, however, changed significantly between 2008 and 2021. Cyberterrorism has become incredibly complex and deadly to combat as a result of the accumulation of time and the development of destructive technology. Cyber terrorists employ cutting-edge techniques to launch cyberattacks that cause enormous devastation and exploit cyberspace for the radicalization of young people.

To safeguard Indian cyberspace against potential cyber threats and maintain its cyber-sovereign interest, a new modernised legal order with strengthened law enforcement authorities is required in light of the development of destructive technological systems that support cyber terrorism.

India should think about passing the Indian Cybersecurity Act, a cybersecurity legislation designed to address modern cybersecurity concerns and control all facets of cybersecurity, including cyberterrorism. A new law would also create a more effective, deterrent, and harsh legal framework against cyber terrorism in light of the potential consolidation of cyber terror attacks.


To protect the nation from potential cyber threats (including cyberterrorism) in cyberspace, the government, like UNOCT, must implement cybersecurity awareness programs and create an educational environment in the nation. To educate the public about cybersecurity dangers promptly, the government should take into account for creating a cyberliteracy programme, initially in areas that are susceptible to cyberattacks. This is crucial now that the COVID-19 pandemic has spread because the majority of firms operate digitally through internet channels.


  • Currently, the majority of international economic, commercial, cultural, social, and governmental interactions and activities—including those of individuals, non-governmental organizations, governments, and governmental institutions—are conducted online (Aghajani and Ghadimi, 2018).
  • Infrastructure and systems that are both crucial and sensitive are both components of this, says the corresponding author. Contact information: lqh@uzz.edu.cn (Q. Liu). The majority of sensitive and important data is moved to this space, or, more accurately, has been produced in this space and cyberspace itself, or is controlled, managed, and exploited through this space. (Akhavan-Hejazi and Mohsenian-Rad, 2018)
  • A large amount of individuals’ time and activities are spent interacting in this arena, which also hosts the majority of media activity and financial transactions (Priyadarshini et al., 2021).
  • A sizeable portion of a nation’s financial and spiritual resources are invested in this area, and a sizeable portion of its individuals’ financial success and spiritual advancements are attained in or significantly influenced by this area (Amir and Givargis, 2020).


Trade policy’s potential to promote cybersecurity outcomes raises a challenging set of problems that are still being fully investigated. Because of increased interconnectedness and reliance on technology among industry, government, and the general public, cybersecurity risk is becoming more serious today. On the one hand, the possibility that governments will increasingly impose restrictions on access to networks and data warrants consideration because it raises the possibility of unfavorable effects on digital trade as well as the diminished potential for the free flow of data to promote growth and welfare. However, poor cybersecurity policies will erode public confidence in the digital economy. Therefore, new trade regulations are required that can eliminate trade obstacles while also supporting risk-based, efficient cybersecurity regulation and creating links between cybersecurity policies in other nations to optimise synergies. It’s time to strengthen international law so that it can combat cyberterrorism because the current system is unable to handle the threat. India should also consider updating its legal system or establishing specialised cybersecurity legislation that might include measures for cyberterrorism.


  1. Chapter III, Section 66F, of the Information Technology Act of 2000 (Act 21 of 2000) (2).
  2. 2018; Aghajani, G.; Ghadimi
  3. Today: Mohseni-Rad, H., and Akhavan-Hejazi, H., 2018.
  4. Surg. 111 (6), 1820–1826. I. Priyadarshini and colleagues, 2021
  5. Givargis, T., and Amir, M. 2020


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