This article is written by Muskan Kumari of 5th Semester of Army Law College, Pune, an intern under Legal Vidhiya
The rapid evolution of digital technology has ushered in a transformative era with profound implications for intellectual property rights (IPR) law. This article delves into the dynamic interplay between digital technology and the legal frameworks governing intellectual property, examining how digital innovation has reshaped traditional notions of copyrights, trademarks, patents, and data privacy. By dissecting the challenges and opportunities posed by the digital age, we explore the intricate relationship between law and technology. Real-world case studies illuminate the complexities of protecting intellectual property in a digital landscape. Additionally, we contemplate future trends, offering insights into potential legal reforms required to navigate this ever-changing terrain. This article serves as a critical exploration of the shifting dimensions of law in response to the omnipresent influence of digital technology on intellectual property, offering valuable insights for legal scholars, practitioners, and policymakers alike.
IPR, IP, Trademark, Patent, Copyright, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital Rights Management, Anti cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act.
Introduction to Digital Technology
In recent years, the world has witnessed a remarkable transformation driven by the relentless march of digital technology. This technological juggernaut, encompassing everything from the internet and smartphones to artificial intelligence and blockchain, has fundamentally altered the way we live, work, and interact. Digital technology, once confined to the realm of science fiction, now permeates every facet of our lives, shaping our societies, economies, and legal systems in profound ways
The advent of digital technology has not merely been an incremental advance; it has been a seismic shift that continues to disrupt established norms and practices at an unprecedented pace. This evolution has ushered in an era where information travels at the speed of light, where virtual spaces are as important as physical ones, and where innovation knows no bounds.
In this context, the intersection of digital technology with the realm of law, particularly intellectual property rights (IPR) law, has become an arena of intense scrutiny and adaptation. The traditional paradigms of intellectual property, which were conceived in a pre-digital age, are now grappling with the challenges and opportunities posed by the digital revolution. As we delve deeper into this article, we will explore how this evolution is reshaping the dimensions of law, the implications for IPR, and the critical need for legal frameworks that can effectively navigate this brave new digital world.
Let’s explore the historical development of intellectual property laws and their adaptation to technological advancements in more detail: –
- Ancient Origins: Intellectual property concepts have ancient origins. In ancient Greece, inventors and artists were occasionally granted temporary monopolies on their works. Roman law similarly recognized the concept of authorship. However, these protections were limited and inconsistent.
- Medieval Manuscripts and Early Copyright: During the Middle Ages, scribes copied manuscripts by hand. With the advent of the printing press in the 15th century, the need for legal protection of literary works became evident. This era saw the emergence of early copyright laws in Europe. For example, the Statute of Anne in 1710 in England is often considered the world’s first copyright law, providing legal protection to authors and publishers.
- Industrial Revolution and Patent Systems: The Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries brought about significant technological advancements. As inventors sought to protect their innovations, modern patent systems emerged. The United States established its patent office in 1790, and other countries soon followed suit. Patents granted inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for a limited time, encouraging innovation.
- International Treaties: As technological innovations transcended national borders, the need for international agreements became evident. The Paris Convention (1883) and the Berne Convention (1886) were among the first international treaties focused on intellectual property. These agreements aimed to harmonize patent, trademark, and copyright protections across multiple nations.
- 20th Century Challenges and Adaptations: The 20th century brought new challenges and adaptations to IP laws. The rise of radio, film, and later television necessitated copyright and broadcasting regulations. Advances in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology raised questions about patentability. The emergence of digital technology and the internet posed significant challenges to copyright protection and led to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other digital-focused IP legislation.
- Global Efforts and Data Privacy: Globalization and the rise of data-driven industries have led to international efforts to protect intellectual property, including trade secrets and trademarks. Simultaneously, data privacy regulations like GDPR have been enacted to protect personal data, impacting the intersection of IP and privacy law.
As we stand at the intersection of rapidly evolving technology and IP law, the challenges and adaptations continue. Intellectual property laws must strike a delicate balance between incentivizing innovation, protecting creators, and fostering a dynamic digital environment that promotes both progress and accessibility. The ongoing evolution of these laws in response to technological advancements will shape the future of innovation and creativity in our interconnected world.
Digital Innovation and IPR
Digital technology has undeniably ushered in a transformative era across numerous industries, reshaping the way businesses operate and interact with consumers. This digital revolution has been particularly evident in sectors like entertainment, publishing, and software development. In entertainment, for instance, streaming platforms have disrupted traditional distribution models, granting consumers immediate access to content and posing challenges to copyright protection. Similarly, the publishing industry has seen a shift towards digital books and online content, necessitating new approaches to intellectual property rights (IPR) enforcement.
One of the key challenges posed by digital innovation to traditional IPR frameworks is the ease of reproduction and distribution of digital content. With the internet and file-sharing technologies, copyrighted materials can be pirated and distributed globally in a matter of seconds, making it challenging to protect creators’ rights. Additionally, the rise of user-generated content platforms and social media has blurred the lines between original and derivative works, complicating the enforcement of copyright and trademark protection.
Moreover, the rapid pace of technological advancement often outpaces the legal and regulatory frameworks governing IPR. This misalignment can hinder the ability of innovators and content creators to safeguard their intellectual property effectively. Additionally, issues related to data privacy, algorithmic bias, and ownership of AI-generated works further complicate the intersection of digital technology and IPR.
In response to these challenges, legal systems and industries are continually evolving to adapt to the digital landscape. Copyright laws are being updated to address digital challenges, and businesses are exploring innovative licensing models. Moreover, blockchain technology is being explored as a means to establish transparent and immutable records of ownership and transactions in the digital realm.
Digital innovation has revolutionized various industries, transforming the way we create, consume, and protect intellectual property. The challenges it poses to traditional IPR frameworks underscore the need for ongoing adaptation and innovation in the legal and business realms to ensure that creators and innovators can continue to thrive in the digital age.
Copyright in the Digital Age
In the digital age, copyright law has undergone significant transformations due to the widespread use of digital technology. One of the most pressing issues is digital piracy, which involves the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted content through the internet. This phenomenon has posed considerable challenges to copyright holders, as it’s become easier for individuals to copy and share digital files without permission. In response, copyright enforcement has intensified, leading to legal battles and the implementation of measures like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) to protect copyrighted material.
On the other hand, the concept of “fair use” has gained prominence in the digital era. Fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder, primarily for purposes like criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, and research. In the digital realm, determining what constitutes fair use can be complex, given the ease of copying and sharing content online. Courts have had to adapt copyright law to account for these new challenges, striking a balance between protecting creators’ rights and preserving the free flow of information.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technologies have emerged as tools for copyright protection in the digital age. DRM involves encoding digital content with restrictions to control how it can be accessed, copied, or shared. While DRM can help safeguard copyrighted material, it has also sparked debates about consumer rights and restrictions on the use of legally purchased digital content. Critics argue that DRM can limit fair use and inhibit consumers from exercising their rights to access content across various devices.
The digital age has brought about significant changes to copyright law, with digital piracy, fair use, and DRM being key focal points. Copyright holders and policymakers continue to grapple with these issues as they seek to strike a balance between protecting intellectual property rights and ensuring the reasonable use and access to digital content in a rapidly evolving technological landscape.
Trademarks and Brand Protection
The advent of digital technology has had profound implications for trademark law, particularly concerning online brand infringement and domain name disputes. Online brand infringement has become a significant concern for trademark holders, as the internet provides a vast platform for businesses and individuals to operate and market their products or services. This has led to an increase in cases of trademark infringement through online channels such as e-commerce platforms, social media, and websites. Trademark owners must vigilantly monitor the digital landscape to protect their brands from unauthorized use, imitation, or dilution.
Domain name disputes have also become more complex in the digital age. With the global reach of the internet, the registration and use of domain names that incorporate trademarks or are confusingly similar to them can lead to disputes. The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) and the Anti cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA) provide legal mechanisms for trademark holders to resolve domain name disputes. These processes enable trademark owners to reclaim domain names that infringe on their brands, but they require navigating a specialized legal landscape and demonstrating certain criteria, such as bad faith intent on the part of the domain name registrant.
Moreover, the expansion of generic top-level domains (gTLDs) has introduced new challenges for trademark protection in the digital realm. The proliferation of gTLDs has made it more challenging to secure domain names matching trademarks, potentially increasing the risk of brand infringement. Trademark holders must proactively register their marks in relevant domain name extensions to mitigate the risk of cybersquatting or domain name abuse.
Digital technology has greatly affected trademark law, with online brand infringement and domain name disputes becoming increasingly common issues. Trademark holders must be proactive in monitoring their brands online, employing legal mechanisms when necessary to protect their trademarks, and adapting to the evolving landscape of domain name registration to safeguard their intellectual property rights in the digital age.
Patents and Technological Advancements
Digital technology has significantly shaped patent law, with profound implications for areas such as software patents and emerging technologies like artificial intelligence (AI) and biotechnology. In the realm of software patents, the rise of digital innovations has sparked debates about the patentability of software and algorithms. Patent offices worldwide have grappled with the challenge of defining patentable subject matter and ensuring that software-related inventions meet the criteria of novelty, non-obviousness, and utility. The boundaries between abstract ideas and concrete inventions have become blurred, leading to legal disputes over the validity and scope of software patents.
In the field of artificial intelligence, the rapid advancements in machine learning and AI algorithms have presented novel challenges to patent law. Inventors and companies seek patent protection for AI-related inventions, ranging from natural language processing to autonomous vehicles. However, determining inventorship, the role of AI in the creative process, and the definition of patent-eligible subject matter have become complex issues. Patent offices and courts are working to adapt traditional patent principles to this evolving technological landscape.
In the domain of biotechnology, digital technology has revolutionized the research and development of new therapies and treatments. DNA sequencing, bioinformatics, and genetic engineering have become integral to biotech innovation. This convergence of biotechnology and digital tools has led to patent applications for gene editing techniques, personalized medicine, and diagnostic algorithms. Patent law must strike a balance between incentivizing innovation and ensuring access to crucial healthcare technologies, raising ethical and legal questions about gene patents and the affordability of biotech innovations.
The influence of digital technology on patent law is profound. It has prompted discussions and legal developments in areas such as software patents, where the lines between abstract ideas and concrete inventions are debated. In emerging fields like AI and biotechnology, patent law must evolve to accommodate rapid technological advancements, addressing questions related to inventorship, patent eligibility, and ethical considerations. The intersection of digital technology and patent law continues to shape the innovation landscape and the protection of intellectual property in the modern era.
Data Privacy and IPR
The Intersection of data privacy regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and intellectual property rights (IPR) is a complex and increasingly critical aspect of the digital age. GDPR, enacted in the European Union, has significant implications for how personal data is collected, processed, and protected. In this context, several key aspects emerge:
- Personal Data Protection: GDPR places strict requirements on the handling of personal data. Individuals have the right to control their personal data, including the right to be forgotten and the right to access their data. This can intersect with IPR when individuals request access to data that may contain copyrighted material, raising questions about how copyright holders’ rights are balanced with data subjects’ rights.
- Consent and Data Processing: GDPR emphasizes the importance of obtaining informed consent for data processing. This applies to data used for various purposes, including marketing and content personalization. In situations where digital content relies on user data to personalize experiences, the use of personal data must comply with GDPR, potentially impacting content creation and delivery.
- Data Portability: GDPR introduces the right to data portability, allowing individuals to transfer their personal data from one service provider to another. This right may involve transferring digital content or user-generated data, and questions arise about how this aligns with copyright laws and IPR, especially when copyrighted material is involved.
- Data Breaches and Security: GDPR imposes stringent data breach notification requirements. When personal data breaches occur, they can involve the exposure of sensitive digital content. Copyright holders may be concerned about the potential loss of control over their content during data breaches and the associated legal responsibilities.
- Cross-Border Data Transfer: GDPR restricts the transfer of personal data outside the EU to countries with inadequate data protection regulations. This limitation can affect the global distribution of digital content and the ability to process personal data internationally while adhering to data privacy laws.
In essence, the intersection of data privacy regulations like GDPR and intellectual property rights presents a challenging landscape where individuals’ rights to personal data protection may conflict with content creators’ and copyright holders’ interests in the digital realm. Striking the right balance between these rights while ensuring compliance with both data privacy and copyright laws remains a significant legal and ethical challenge in today’s digital age.
E-Commerce and IPR
E-commerce platforms have had a profound impact on intellectual property rights (IPR) by reshaping the landscape for commerce and content distribution. Several key aspects of this impact include:
- Counterfeiting Issues: E-commerce platforms have become hotbeds for the sale of counterfeit goods. The ease of setting up online stores and the potential for anonymity have made it challenging to monitor and prevent the sale of fake or infringing products. This presents significant IPR challenges, as brand owners must continually police these platforms to protect their trademarks and copyrights from infringement.
- Marketplace Liability: The liability of online marketplaces for intellectual property infringement has been a subject of legal debate. E-commerce platforms like Amazon and eBay have faced lawsuits alleging that they should be held responsible for the sale of counterfeit or infringing products by third-party sellers on their platforms. Courts have sometimes ruled in favour of marketplace liability, making e-commerce platforms more accountable for IP enforcement.
- Role in IP Enforcement: Some e-commerce platforms have taken proactive steps to combat IP infringement. They often implement policies and procedures for reporting infringing listings and may use automated systems to detect and remove potentially infringing content. Additionally, they cooperate with brand owners to enforce IPR through takedowns and legal actions against sellers of counterfeit goods.
- Global Reach and Challenges: E-commerce platforms operate globally, which can complicate IPR enforcement. Infringing products may be shipped internationally, and different jurisdictions may have varying interpretations of IP laws. This can lead to complex legal battles and challenges in enforcing IPR effectively across borders.
- Consumer Awareness: E-commerce has also raised consumer awareness of IPR issues. Buyers may unknowingly purchase counterfeit or pirated products online, leading to concerns about product quality, safety, and ethical considerations. This increased awareness can influence consumer behaviour and attitudes towards IPR.
E-commerce platforms have both facilitated the dissemination of authentic products and content and posed significant challenges for IPR enforcement. The ease of selling on these platforms, combined with the global nature of e-commerce, has made it necessary for brand owners, online marketplaces, and legal authorities to adapt their strategies and policies to address counterfeiting, marketplace liability, and IP enforcement in the digital marketplace. This evolving landscape continues to shape the relationship between e-commerce and intellectual property rights.
Digital technology has significantly blurred international boundaries, reshaping the landscape of cross-border intellectual property (IP) disputes and harmonization efforts in profound ways. Several key aspects highlight the impact of digital technology in this context:
- Globalization of Commerce: Digital technology has enabled businesses to reach global markets with ease. E-commerce, digital content distribution, and online services can be accessed worldwide, leading to an increase in cross-border trade. This globalization has resulted in IP disputes that transcend national borders, as infringements occurring in one country may have consequences for IP holders around the world.
- Challenges in IP Enforcement: The digital age has brought about challenges in enforcing IP rights across borders. Infringing websites and online platforms may operate from one jurisdiction but have a global reach. This makes it complex for IP owners to protect their rights, necessitating international cooperation and coordination among legal authorities.
- Harmonization Efforts: International organizations and agreements have recognized the need for harmonizing IP laws to address digital challenges. For instance, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) works to develop international treaties and agreements that facilitate cross-border IP protection and enforcement. Treaties like the Berne Convention for copyrights and the Madrid Protocol for trademarks aim to create consistent standards across countries.
- Divergent Legal Frameworks: Despite harmonization efforts, differences in national IP laws persist. These variations can complicate cross-border disputes. Issues such as copyright term lengths, fair use exceptions, and patent examination standards may differ significantly from one country to another, requiring careful consideration in international IP cases.
- Emerging Technologies: Digital technology has also given rise to emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, blockchain, and 3D printing, which present new challenges for IP law. These technologies often evolve rapidly, surpassing the pace at which legal frameworks can adapt. This lag can result in uncertainties and disputes over IP rights in emerging tech sectors.
Digital technology has erased traditional boundaries, leading to an interconnected global economy where cross-border IP disputes have become increasingly common. Efforts to harmonize international IP laws aim to provide a framework for addressing these challenges, but differences in legal systems and the rapid evolution of technology continue to shape the landscape of international IP disputes and enforcement. Adaptation to this new digital reality remains a central concern for the protection of intellectual property on a global scale.
Legal Challenges and Solutions
The digital age has brought forth numerous legal challenges to intellectual property rights (IPR) law, necessitating innovative solutions and reforms to ensure that these laws remain effective in the digital era:
- Digital Piracy and Copyright Infringement: One of the foremost challenges is the rampant digital piracy and copyright infringement facilitated by the internet. To address this, a potential solution is to enhance international cooperation among law enforcement agencies to track and prosecute infringing parties across borders. Additionally, fostering awareness of the importance of respecting copyright and the consequences of infringement can contribute to a culture of digital content consumption that respects IPR.
- Fair Use and Digital Transformative Works: The concept of “fair use” in the digital age is often contentious due to the ease of remixing and transforming digital content. Reforms could clarify fair use guidelines for the digital realm, emphasizing factors such as the purpose and character of the use, the nature of the copyrighted work, and the effect on the potential market.
- E-Commerce Counterfeiting: E-commerce platforms have become hotspots for counterfeit goods. Legal reforms could impose stricter liability on these platforms for verifying the authenticity of products sold by third-party sellers. Enhanced penalties for knowingly hosting counterfeit products could incentivize platforms to implement robust anti-counterfeiting measures.
- Online Marketplace Liability: Addressing the liability of online marketplaces in IP disputes requires clear legal frameworks. Reforms could establish criteria for determining when a platform is liable for infringement by third-party sellers, striking a balance between protecting IP rights and not overly burdening e-commerce platforms.
- Emerging Technologies and IP: As technologies like AI and blockchain evolve, IP law needs to adapt. Reforms might involve defining clear guidelines for patenting AI-generated inventions, addressing issues of inventorship, and establishing patent eligibility criteria for inventions produced by AI systems.
- Data Privacy and IP: The intersection of data privacy regulations like GDPR and IP creates challenges for businesses that rely on personal data for content personalization and marketing. Reforms could harmonize data privacy and IP laws to provide clearer guidelines for handling personal data while respecting copyright and trademark rights.
- International IP Enforcement: Enhanced international cooperation and the creation of specialized IP courts or dispute resolution mechanisms can improve the enforcement of IP rights across borders. International treaties and agreements should evolve to accommodate the digital age’s unique challenges.
Adapting IPR law to the digital era requires a multifaceted approach. Legal reforms should strike a balance between protecting the rights of content creators and encouraging innovation and creativity while considering the global nature of the digital landscape. Such reforms should be designed to address specific challenges posed by digital technology while upholding the principles of intellectual property protection.
Here are some real-world case studies that illustrate the practical implications of digital technology on intellectual property (IP) law:
- Napster and Music Piracy (Late 1990s – Early 2000s):
- Facts: Napster, an early peer-to-peer file-sharing platform, allowed users to share music files freely, leading to widespread music piracy.
- Implications: This case highlighted the challenges of enforcing copyright in the digital age. Record labels and artists took legal action against Napster, ultimately resulting in its shutdown. It underscored the need for legal and technological solutions to combat digital piracy, leading to the rise of legal music streaming services.
- Apple vs. Samsung (2010s):
- Facts: Apple and Samsung engaged in a series of patent infringement lawsuits regarding smartphone technology and design elements.
- Implications: These cases exemplify the complexities of IP disputes in the tech industry. They resulted in significant damages awarded to both companies, raising questions about the role of patents in promoting innovation and competition in the digital market.
- YouTube and Copyright (Ongoing):
- Facts: YouTube, a video-sharing platform, has faced numerous copyright infringement claims due to user-uploaded content.
- Implications: YouTube developed Content ID, a system that identifies copyrighted material in user-generated content. While this helps protect copyright holders, it also raises questions about fair use and automated content takedowns. The ongoing legal and ethical challenges highlight the need for balancing IP protection with user-generated content.
- The Pirate Bay (Ongoing):
- Facts: The Pirate Bay is a prominent torrent website facilitating the distribution of copyrighted content.
- Implications: Legal actions against The Pirate Bay have resulted in domain seizures and convictions of its founders. However, the site continues to operate using various domain names, showcasing the challenges of enforcing IP laws in a decentralized digital environment.
- Oracle vs. Google (Ongoing):
- Facts: Oracle sued Google over the use of Java APIs in the Android operating system, alleging copyright infringement.
- Implications: This ongoing case addresses the copyrightability of software interfaces and APIs, with implications for software development and interoperability. The outcome could significantly impact the tech industry and the way software-related IP is protected.
These case studies demonstrate how digital technology has reshaped IP law and enforcement, highlighting the need for innovative legal and technological solutions to navigate the complex challenges of the digital age. They also underscore the ongoing debates about striking a balance between protecting IP rights and promoting technological innovation and access to digital content.
Future developments in digital technology and intellectual property (IP) law are likely to be dynamic and intertwined, calling for continuous adaptation and reform in various areas. Here are some trends and areas that may require further attention:
- AI and IP Creation: As artificial intelligence (AI) technologies become more capable of generating creative works, questions regarding the ownership of AI-generated content will intensify. Legal frameworks may need to define rules for establishing ownership and rights in AI-generated inventions, art, and written content.
- Blockchain and IP Protection: Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize IP protection by providing immutable records of ownership and transactions. Future reforms may explore the integration of blockchain into IP registration and enforcement processes to enhance transparency and reduce disputes.
- Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR): The rise of AR and VR technologies may raise IP issues related to virtual worlds, digital assets, and immersive experiences. IP laws may need to evolve to address unique challenges in these emerging fields, such as protecting virtual property and experiences.
- Data Privacy and IP: Stricter data privacy regulations and evolving IP law may intersect more frequently. Reforms could aim to harmonize these legal frameworks to ensure that personal data can be used for content personalization and marketing while respecting privacy rights.
- Evolving Business Models: The shift from physical to digital content distribution will continue to influence business models. IP laws may need to adapt to accommodate subscription-based services, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and other emerging revenue models.
- Global IP Enforcement: The global nature of digital technology requires increased international cooperation for IP enforcement. Future efforts may focus on streamlining cross-border IP disputes, harmonizing copyright terms, and establishing standardized IP protection mechanisms.
- Fair Use and Transformative Works: As user-generated content and transformative works become more prevalent, IP laws may require further clarification regarding fair use and derivative creations. Balancing user freedoms with copyright protection will remain a challenge.
- Environmental Concerns: IP law may need to address environmental sustainability concerns related to digital technology. For instance, issues related to e-waste and the environmental impact of data centres may necessitate reforms or incentives for sustainable tech development.
- Educational and Research Exceptions: With the increasing use of digital technology in education and research, reforms may focus on expanding and clarifying exceptions in copyright law to ensure that students, educators, and researchers can access and use digital content effectively.
- User Rights and Digital Preservation: Future IP reforms may consider strengthening user rights, such as the right to access and preserve digital content, to ensure long-term availability and access to culturally significant digital materials.
The future of digital technology and IP law is marked by ongoing evolution and adaptation. Addressing these trends and areas of concern will require a collaborative effort between governments, tech industries, legal experts, and civil society to ensure that IP law continues to serve its dual purpose of protecting rights and fostering innovation in the digital age.
In the era of digital technology, the legal landscape governing intellectual property rights (IPR) is undergoing a profound metamorphosis. This transformation has been characterized by a fundamental shift in the way we create, share, and protect intellectual property. From the challenges of digital piracy and data privacy to the complexities of patenting software and protecting online brands, the implications of digital technology on IPR law are both vast and intricate.
As we’ve journeyed through this exploration, it’s evident that the traditional boundaries of IPR law are no longer sufficient to address the multifaceted challenges posed by the digital age. Legal systems worldwide must adapt and evolve to safeguard creators’ rights, encourage innovation, and strike a balance between protecting intellectual property and promoting accessibility and creativity.
Moreover, our examination of international dimensions underscores the pressing need for global cooperation and harmonization in addressing cross-border issues and disputes, a task that requires collaborative efforts among nations and organizations.
The implications of digital technology in IPR law are far-reaching, demanding constant vigilance and adaptation. As we look to the future, it becomes increasingly clear that the legal frameworks governing intellectual property must remain agile and responsive to emerging technologies and their impact on society. By fostering an environment that encourages innovation while preserving creators’ rights, we can navigate the dynamic intersection of law and technology, ensuring that intellectual property remains a driving force in our ever-evolving digital world.
 Innovation and Intellectual Property, WIPO, available at https://www.wipo.int/ip-outreach/en/ipday/2017/innovation_and_intellectual_property.html#:~:text=Innovation%20means%20doing%20something%20new,intellectual%20property%20(IP)%20rights , last seen on 22/09/23.
 Data privacy and intellectual property rights, iPleaders, available at https://blog.ipleaders.in/data-privacy-intellectual-property-rights/ , last seen on 22/09/23 .
 Role of IP in E-Commerce, Enhelion Blogs, available at https://enhelion.com/blogs/2022/02/07/role-of-ip-in-e-commerce/ , last seen on 22/09/23.