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This article is written by Anjali Sanyal, an Intern under Legal Vidhiya


The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a legal framework aimed at identifying and authenticating Indian citizens residing in the state of Assam, India. This abstract explores the constitutional validity of the NRC and its implementation in Assam, focusing on the legal and socio-political implications. The NRC was first introduced in Assam in 1951 as a response to concerns regarding illegal immigration from neighboring countries, particularly Bangladesh. Its objective was to create a comprehensive database of genuine Indian citizens residing in Assam, distinguishing them from illegal immigrants. The constitutional validity of the NRC has been a subject of significant debate and legal scrutiny. Critics argue that the process of identifying citizens under the NRC can be exclusionary, leading to the potential exclusion of genuine citizens and violating their fundamental rights. The burden of proof placed on individuals to establish their citizenship can be particularly challenging for marginalized communities and those lacking proper documentation.

Furthermore, concerns have been raised regarding the potential discriminatory impact of the NRC on certain communities, especially minority groups. Critics argue that the implementation of the NRC in Assam has disproportionately affected marginalized communities, causing social and political unrest.

On the other hand, proponents argue that the NRC is necessary to address the issue of illegal immigration and protect the rights of genuine citizens. They assert that the NRC is in line with the constitutional mandate of protecting national security and preserving the demographic balance in the state.

Keywords – Implementation , Marginalized communities, Immigration, Citizenship.


The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a contentious and significant policy measure implemented in the state of Assam, India, to identify genuine Indian citizens and address concerns about illegal immigration. The NRC process, initiated in 2015 and completed in 2019, aimed to create a comprehensive database of citizens in Assam by verifying their citizenship status through the scrutiny of historical records. Assam, a northeastern state of India, has witnessed complex demographic changes over the years, partly attributed to migration from neighboring countries, particularly Bangladesh. The issue of illegal immigration has been a persistent concern, leading to socio-political tensions and calls for an effective mechanism to identify and differentiate between genuine Indian citizens and illegal immigrants. The constitutional validity of the NRC has been a subject of intense debate, legal challenges, and public discourse. Critics argue that the implementation of the NRC poses a threat to fundamental rights and could lead to the exclusion of genuine citizens, especially marginalized communities. They raise concerns about the burden of proof placed on individuals to establish their citizenship and the potential for arbitrary exclusions based on lack of documentation or other discriminatory factors.

Several legal challenges have shaped the discourse on the constitutional validity of the NRC. The Supreme Court of India played a pivotal role in overseeing the implementation of the NRC and adjudicating various issues arising from it. The court’s judgments have influenced the implementation process and legal framework surrounding the NRC in Assam.

Proponents of the NRC emphasize the need to protect national security and maintain demographic balance within Assam. They argue that the NRC process is a constitutional necessity and a crucial step towards ensuring the rights of genuine citizens by identifying and addressing the issue of illegal immigration.


The term “National Register of Citizens” (NRC) refers to a government-maintained record or database that contains the names and relevant information of the citizens residing in a particular country. The purpose of an NRC is to create an official list of individuals who are considered citizens of that nation. The NRC Is often used as a tool for identification, documentation, and verification of citizenship. It is implemented by governments to establish legal citizenship status and distinguish citizens from non-citizens, such as immigrants or refugees. The criteria for inclusion in the NRC may vary from country to country, but typically involve providing documentary evidence of birth, parentage, or other relevant information that demonstrates a person’s link to the country.

The NRC process is generally conducted in order to address issues related to illegal immigration, national security, or the fair distribution of resources and benefits among citizens. By verifying and updating the NRC periodically, governments can ensure that only individuals who are legitimately entitled to the rights and privileges of citizenship are included.

It’s important to note that the specifics of NRC policies, including their scope, implementation, and potential impact on different communities, can vary significantly from country to country. Therefore, the context and details of the specific National Register of Citizens you are referring to would be needed to provide a more precise understanding of its implications.


It is a tool used by the government to identify individuals who are considered legal citizens of the country. The importance of the NRC can be understood from various perspectives:

  1. Identification of genuine citizens: The primary purpose of the NRC is to distinguish between citizens and non-citizens in a particular region. It helps in identifying and documenting individuals who are rightfully entitled to the rights, benefits, and privileges provided by the state. By verifying the citizenship status of individuals, the NRC aims to ensure that resources and welfare measures are allocated to deserving citizens.
  2. National security: Accurate identification and documentation of citizens play a crucial role in maintaining national security. The NRC helps in identifying and tracking individuals who may pose a threat to the security and integrity of the nation. It helps in preventing the illegal infiltration of individuals involved in criminal activities, terrorism, or other threats to national security.
  3. Preventing illegal immigration: The NRC serves as a tool to tackle the issue of illegal immigration. It helps in identifying and excluding individuals who are not genuine citizens and have entered the country unlawfully. By maintaining an updated and comprehensive register, the government can implement measures to control and curb illegal immigration, protecting the interests of the nation and its citizens.
  4. Efficient resource allocation: The NRC plays a crucial role in ensuring the equitable distribution of resources and welfare measures. By accurately identifying citizens, the government can allocate resources such as education, healthcare, and social welfare schemes more effectively. This prevents misuse or diversion of resources meant for citizens to non-citizens, ensuring that the intended beneficiaries receive the necessary support.
  5. Strengthening social cohesion: A comprehensive and reliable NRC can help foster social cohesion and harmony within a diverse society. It promotes inclusivity by ensuring that citizens of all backgrounds are recognized and provided with equal opportunities and rights. By maintaining a transparent and fair process, the NRC can address grievances, resolve identity disputes, and build trust among different communities.


The implementation of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam is a complex issue with historical, social, and political implications. It’s important to note that the NRC in Assam is a specific implementation focused on that state due to its unique historical context and the Assam Accord. The implementation of NRC in other parts of India or on a nationwide scale may differ in approach and context.


  1. Historical Context: The issue of illegal immigration in Assam has been a longstanding concern due to its proximity to Bangladesh and a history of migration from the neighboring country. Assam witnessed significant demographic changes over the years, leading to tensions between the indigenous Assamese population and migrants.
  2. Assam Accord: The Assam Accord was a memorandum of settlement signed in 1985 between the Government of India and leaders of the Assam Movement, a mass movement against illegal immigration. As per the accord, it was agreed that a process would be undertaken to identify and deport individuals who entered Assam after the designated cutoff date, i.e., March 24, 1971.
  3. NRC Exercise: The NRC in Assam was conducted under the supervision of the Supreme Court of India. The purpose was to create a comprehensive list of Indian citizens residing in Assam and identify individuals who could not provide sufficient documentation to prove their Indian citizenship. The cutoff date for eligibility was determined as March 24, 1971, in alignment with the Assam Accord.
  4. Verification Process: The NRC verification process involved individuals submitting documents to prove their ancestry and residency in Assam before the specified cutoff date. The documents could include birth certificates, land records, electoral rolls, etc. The authorities examined the documents to determine citizenship. Those whose names were not included in the final NRC list were required to go through a claims and objections process.
  5. Controversies and Challenges: The NRC exercise faced several challenges and controversies. Critics argued that it caused exclusion and hardship for marginalized communities, including religious and linguistic minorities. There were concerns about the reliability of documents, issues of discrimination, and potential statelessness. The large number of exclusions and complexities in the claims process further raised concerns about implementation.
  6. population Aftermath and Future: The final NRC list was published on August 31, 2019, excluding approximately 1.9 million people. However, the implementation process has faced legal challenges, and the future course of action regarding the excluded individuals remains uncertain.


In conclusion, the implementation of the NRC in Assam had significant implications for the, with exclusions, controversies, and uncertainties surrounding the future status of those not included in the final list. The issue remains a subject of ongoing debate and legal proceedings. It is important to recognize that the NRC in Assam was a specific implementation tied to the Assam Accord, addressing the unique historical context and concerns of the state. The implementation of NRC in other parts of India or on a nationwide scale may differ in approach and outcomes. The NRC exercise resulted in the exclusion of approximately 1.9 million people from the final list. This exclusion led to concerns about the impact on marginalized communities and potential statelessness. Critics argued that the process disproportionately affected religious and linguistic minorities, raising allegations of discrimination.



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