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This article is written by Srushti Joshi of Maharashtra National Law University Nagpur, an intern under Legal Vidhiya


In India’s legal system, mediation, as an alternative to litigation, is extremely important. The provisions for mediation in India are thoroughly examined in this document, including their definitions, types, procedures, and relevant legal framework. In mediation, a neutral third party, known as a mediator, steps in to help disputing parties come to a mutually acceptable resolution. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 primarily governs mediation in India, and the Supreme Court-established Mediation and Conciliation Project Committee (MCPC) actively promotes it. also looks at the various legislative requirements that call for or require mediation in particular circumstances, highlighting how mediation helps to lessen the burden of the law. Even though mediation has many benefits, issues with awareness and enforcement still exist, highlighting areas that need more attention. This in-depth analysis of mediation in India aims to give readers a thorough understanding of its complexities and implications.


Mediation, Types of Mediation, types of mediation, process of mediation, provisions for mediation.


In India’s legal system, mediation has grown in importance as a dynamic method of conflict resolution. It offers parties a flexible, collaborative, and private dispute resolution option as an alternative to the conventional adversarial court processes. In order to clarify its nuances, mechanisms, and legal foundations, this paper conducts an extensive analysis of mediation in India.

At its core, mediation entails the involvement of an impartial third party, known as a mediator, who helps the disputing parties engage in productive discussion and negotiation. The mediator’s job is to help the parties to a dispute come to an amicable agreement that is suited to their particular needs. Contrary to litigation, which frequently produces winners and losers, The Arbitration and Conciliation Act of 1996 serves as the cornerstone of the legal system that underpins mediation in India. This legislation recognizes the enforceability of mediated settlement agreements, similar to court decrees, as well as the principles and practices of mediation. Additionally, the Supreme Court of India’s Mediation and Conciliation Project Committee (MCPC), which was established, is crucial in advancing mediation as a preferred method of dispute resolution. It establishes requirements for mediator accreditation, runs training courses, and promotes the use of mediation in a variety of settings. mediation aims to create win-win outcomes. Numerous types of disputes, including family matters, business conflicts, labor disputes, and more, can benefit from mediation. According to various laws, mediation is required in some situations, but it is also an optional choice in others. In order to better understand the differences between court-recommended mediation and private mediation, this document explores their subtleties.

Confidentiality, voluntariness, and the active involvement of the parties involved are characteristics of the mediation process itself. As the mediator helps the parties explore original solutions that might not be obvious in a traditional legal setting, the parties are encouraged to express their concerns in an open and honest manner. Discussions and information shared during the mediation process are protected by confidentiality. Even though mediation has many benefits, such as speed, economy, and privacy, there are still difficulties. The need for greater awareness and acceptance of mediation as a legitimate dispute resolution mechanism, as well as issues relating to the enforcement of mediated settlement agreements, are areas that demand attention.


In mediation, a third party, or mediator, is brought into a conflict to help the parties negotiate a mutually agreeable resolution of their differences. The mediator meets with the parties in an impartial setting so that they can discuss their differences and potential resolutions. It is encouraged for each party to express their opinions honestly and openly. The mediator can help the parties consider options and alternatives they may not have thought of because they are an impartial third party who can look at the conflict objectively. The mediator is impartial because he or she has no personal stake in the outcome of the negotiation.[1] The mediation is a private, [2]confidential process. Federal courts have ruled that with the exception of certain matters like fraud, waste, abuse or criminal activity, discussions specific to the mediation are privileged and inadmissible in any adversarial administrative or court proceeding. The mediator and his or her notes cannot be subpoenaed by either party if a settlement was not reached during a mediation session and the dispute was later litigated in any administrative or judicial proceeding.


In India, mediation is a flexible and adaptable method for resolving conflicts that is created to meet the various needs of the parties involved. We examine the two most common types of mediation within the framework of the Indian legal system: individual mediation and court-referred mediation, both of which are essential components of the larger field of ADR. According to Section 89 of the Code of Civil Procedure of 1908,[3] the court may use its authority to order an ongoing legal case to mediation. This process is known as court-referred mediation. This approach is frequently used in situations involving matrimonial conflicts, particularly divorce proceedings. By using this mechanism, the courts actively promote mediation as a way to speed up resolutions, highlighting its important place in India’s system of alternative dispute resolution. Individual mediation, on the other hand, entails the hiring of qualified people to act as mediators, frequently for a set fee. This strategy is open to a wide range of stakeholders, including people, companies, and governmental organizations. Private mediation can be chosen voluntarily by the parties to a dispute, underscoring its availability and applicability in a variety of societal contexts. The idea of mediation in India emphasizes its innate adaptability and flexibility to meet the particular requirements and preferences of disputing parties. It functions as a flexible mechanism for resolving disputes that has established itself in the Indian legal system. Options include court-referred mediation for more formal legal matters and individual mediation, which broadens its applicability to a variety of disputes. This inclusive strategy recognizes mediation’s critical function in fostering additional avenues for successfully resolving disputes within India’s legal system.[4]


In most cases, parties to a dispute in India voluntarily choose mediation as a way to come to a mutually agreeable conclusion. This strategy ensures impartiality by putting the parties at the center of the mediation process.[5] The parties are led toward a mutual resolution of their differences by an impartial third party, frequently a mediator. The parties may mutually decide on an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) lawyer, or they may choose a mediator who assists in structured communication and negotiation. Importantly, mediation is entirely voluntary, protecting each party’s rights and authority, and any party may leave at any time without having to give a reason. The disputing parties are encouraged to actively and directly participate in the mediation process in India. This involvement entails laying out the pertinent details of the dispute and suggesting potential resolutions. The mediator serves as a facilitator, assisting the parties in coming to a decision on terms that were mutually acceptable. To learn more about their legal options and start negotiating, parties can speak with their ADR attorney. The complete privacy of mediation in India is one of its main benefits. It is a discreet process because the topics discussed are kept private and are only known by the disputing parties and the mediator. Statements made during mediation are confidential and cannot be used against you in court or in any other situation without your and the other parties’ express written consent. Instead of forcing a solution on the parties, the mediator in Indian mediation works together with them to facilitate the dispute-resolution procedure. The mediator’s duties include managing any disruptions or outbursts as well as facilitating communication between the parties. The intention is to motivate the parties to come to a satisfactory resolution. Additionally, the mediation procedure in India is completely private; any information disclosed during mediation sessions is kept inaccessible and sealed. Concessions made during mediation are not admissible as evidence in other legal proceedings, and any information provided to the mediator is confidential and may not be disclosed to the other party without the other party’s express consent. In India, mediation has been used to resolve a variety of disputes, including marital and commercial ones. It provides a speedy, efficient, and reasonably priced alternative for resolving disputes while preserving the confidentiality of the entire procedure. A crucial point is that mediation in India is flexible and helps lighten the load of open cases in the courts.[6]


Court-recommended mediation and private mediation are the two main types of mediation practiced in India. Court-referred mediation, which is frequently used to settle matrimonial disputes like divorces, occurs when a court invokes Section 89 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. The court actively encourages parties to consider mediation as a potential alternative to traditional litigation during this legal process. Court-referred mediation is frequently used in matrimonial cases, particularly those involving delicate issues like divorce, to facilitate a more amicable resolution. Contrarily, private mediation gives parties the freedom to participate voluntarily in the mediation process with the support of a certified mediator. A wide range of stakeholders, including people, companies, and governmental organizations, are free to choose this option. When parties recognize the potential advantages of resolving their disputes outside of court, they opt for private mediation. Private mediation enables parties to design their own resolutions and offers a more flexible and consensual approach to dispute resolution. Due to a backlog of court cases, India’s legal system faces many difficulties. A number of statutory provisions that emphasize mediation as the preferred method of dispute resolution have been introduced in an effort to lessen this burden. These provisions, which cover a range of legal topics, each stress the value of mediation.

Conciliators are entrusted with the responsibility of mediating and resolving workplace disputes under the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947. The mediation procedure for labor and industrial disputes is specifically outlined in this act. In 2002, a significant amendment was made to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, requiring mediation in all ongoing legal proceedings, particularly those involving family and personal matters. This legal modification reflects the acceptance of mediation’s value in resolving delicate disputes. The National Company Law Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal are two examples of specialized tribunals with the authority to refer disputes to mediation under the 2013 Companies Act. This demonstrates how mediation is becoming more and more valued in corporate and business settings.

The Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development Act of 2006 specifically calls for mediation and conciliation when disputes involve micro, small, and medium-sized businesses, underscoring mediation’s importance in promoting swift resolutions.[7]

The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 and the Special Marriage Act of 1954 both contain provisions that support the use of mediation to resolve disputes relating to marriage and divorce. These laws promote the use of mediation as an alternative to adversarial court proceedings. Despite these comprehensive mediation rules, mediation is still not as popular among Indian parties. This is mainly because of problems with recognition and enforcement, as there is frequently no clear-cut structure for carrying out and upholding mediation agreements through legislative and judicial means. While these issues are not fully resolved, parties might be reluctant to fully commit to mediation.


In India, mediation is a crucial alternative to traditional litigation because it gives parties a quicker, more affordable, and private way to settle disputes. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act and other court rules, as well as the legal framework, have paved the way for mediation’s development and acceptance.

With the backing of statutory provisions, mediation has been incorporated into Indian law as a useful tool for reducing the load on the judicial system, particularly in cases involving family matters, disputes, commercial conflicts, and more. The need for more awareness and recognition, however, as well as issues with the enforcement of mediation agreements, continue to be problems. In India, mediation has the potential to become the preferred method of resolving disputes because it fosters collaboration, communication, and win-win resolutions. The use of mediation as the primary method of resolving disputes in the nation will probably continue to expand and be adopted as long as efforts are made to standardize procedures and raise awareness.

[1] Christopher W. Moore, The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict (Jossey-Bass 2014).

[2] Andrea Kupfer Schneider, “The Role of the Mediator: A Comprehensive Analysis of Mediator Techniques,” 27 Harv. Negot. L. Rev. 287 (2019).

[3] Saikrishna Rajagopal & Dharmendra Rautray, Indian Mediation Law and Practice (LexisNexis 2019).

[4] S. Ravichandran (ed.), Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Indian Perspective (LexisNexis 2020).

[5] Christopher W. Moore, The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict

[6] Thomas D. Barton, Mediation and Confidentiality: Comparing Approaches in Europe and the United States, Fordham International Law Journal

[7] Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006, Act No. 27 of 2006, Acts of Parliament, 2006 (India).


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